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Microsurgery (pathophysiological models)

| models of hypertension | Myocardial Infarction (MI) | Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Model | Model of hypertrophy | Carotid baloon injury model
 

These techniques can be performed in rat and mice.

models of hypertension

Goldblatt I (1K1C) and Goldblatt II (2K1C)

A left lateral abdominal incision is used to expose the kidney. A clip is placed around the left renal artery (Goldblatt I and II) in order to reduce the renal blood flow. For the Goldblatt I method, a right-nephrectomy is also performed.

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Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery

A left lateral thoracotomy is performed on anesthetized and ventilated animal to expose the heart. A ligature near the insertion of the left auricular appendage is placed and tied around the left descending coronary artery. Occlusion of the artery is verified by the rapid blanching of the left ventricle. The ends of the occluding ligature are trimmed and the chest and skin incision are closed.

Infarcted mouse heart

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Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Model

For ischemia/reperfusion studies, the procedure is identical to the MI procedure, however the ligature is left in place for a predetermined amount of time (normally 30 or 60 minutes), and then removed prior to chest closure.

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Model of hypertrophy

Trans-aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pressure overload

A small horizontal incision is made at the level of the cranial sternum allowing visualization of the aortic arch. A suture is placed around the aorta between the origin of the right innominate and left common carotid artery. Transaortic constriction (TAC) is created using a suture tied twice around the aorta and a predetermined-gauge needle size. The needle is then gently retracted and the incision closed.

Hypertrophied heart 2 weeks after TAC surgery

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Carotid baloon injury model

(Rat only)

After dissecting the left carotid bifurcation, we introduce the balloon catheter (fogarty 2F) through an arteriotomy on the proximal external carotid artery. The catheter is advanced to the common carotid artery, inflated, and withdrawn three times with rotation.

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