Part 1: Risk management process and land-planning
Over recent decades, most countries have experienced an expansion of their urban areas. The complexity of the technological and human systems have also increased sharply. This concentration and complexity has thus largely contributed to the increase of the global risks to societies, albeit occasional individual risks may have decreased thanks to the progress of science and technology. Despite the development of risk prevention, social structures seem paradoxically less prepared to face disasters and alleviate their effects. It is noted that the approaches developed have not managed to successfully reduce the impact of the natural hazards so a better knowledge of the phenomenon is required to mitigate increasing losses. This is due to the fact that risk management has remained for too long concentrated on the strict analysis of the physical processes and favours technical solutions and structural measures rather than more qualitative and more global solutions. It too often focuses on the short term and on the management of the crisis and dismisses local know-how. From now on, risk management policies should adopt an integrated approach, involving all the stakeholders, from global to local, on the basis of a full diagnosis of the area, far beyond the problems of natural risks alone. This should take account of an analysis of the political aspirations for development, and be achieved through sharing research and good practice which is communicated efficiently between practitioners. The general process of landslide risk management will be presented, and then illustrated by part 2.