ProFeSS – Professionalisation of sport federations in Switzerland
A collaborative FNS project between the Universities of Bern and Lausanne
A collaborative FNS project between the Universities of Bern and Lausanne
Context: International and national federations are non-profit organisations carrying out social and commercial activities. They are key actors within the sports system and its relation with external entities and actors such as state/government, sponsors and media.
Sport federations are facing great challenges these days: growing competition in top-level sports, democratisation of sports with “sports for all” and sports as a tool against social problems (integration, education, health, unemployment, etc.). To respond to these challenges, professionalising sports organisations seems to be an appropriate strategy.
Definition: In this research project, we define the professionalisation of sports organisations as an organisational process leading towards organizational rationalisation, efficiency and project management.
Objectives: The purpose of this research project is to gain a better understanding of professionalisation processes in sport federations at different levels (international, continental, national) based in Switzerland. What are the causes (internal and external), forms (e.g. diversification, formalisation) and consequences (e.g. rationalisation, bureaucratisation) of professionalisation processes?
Key words: professionalisation, sport federations, multi level approach, factors, forms and effects of professionalisation
Scientific fields: Management/Sociology/Economics
Concepts: Action Theory/ Contingency Theory/ Institutional Theory/ New Institutionalism/ Organisational Theory/ Resource Dependence Theory
Units concerned: international/ continental/ national sport federations, clubs, umbrella organisations
University of Lausanne: Emmanuel Bayle, Josephine Clausen, David Giauque
University of Bern: Christoffer Klenk, Grazia Lang, Sigfried Nagel, Kaisa Ruoranen, Torsten Schlesinger
has a PHD in management sciences and is Professor in sports managemement at the Institute of Sport Sciences of the University of Lausanne (ISSUL). Previously, he was Professor in strategic management and corporate social responsability (CSR) at the business school of the University of Lyon.
He has published several books and articles on sports management (i.e. Great leaders in sport, Governance in sport organisations) but also on CSR (CSR and sport) and on non profit management.
He is a speacialist of governance, management and performance of olympic sport organisations and has experiences in executive education in this area. He currently manages a research project on professionnalisation of international sports federation.
joined the research team in September 2014 as PhD candidate at the Institute of Sport Sciences of the University of Lausanne. Josephine holds a French and a German Master degree in International Economic Relations, obtained at the universities of Paris-Est Créteil (France) and Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Before starting her PhD, Josephine has worked at the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). Her main research focus is on international sport federations, their professionalisation and commercialisation, their economic models, leadership as well as organisational performance.
is a professor at the University of Lausanne, member of the Institute of Political, Historical and International Studies (IEPHI), and member of the Swiss Public Administration Network (SPAN). From 2003 to 2008, he worked at the University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO Valais) as a research and teaching professor. He was then recruited by the University of Lausanne in 2008. Since this date, he works in this institution and teaches mainly in the master program dedicated to the teaching of public policies and public administration. His current research interests include:
He is the author of numerous publications on various topics such as : public management reforms; organizational transformations; professionalization and de-professionlisation processes in organizations confronted to managerialization; occupational health in non-profit and public organizations; motivation processes (public service motivation); professional identities; organizational culture. He is also member of several editorial and scientific committees of prestigious international journals (International Review of Administrative Sciences; European Management Review; International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management; Management International; Humanisme et Entreprise; and more). He is the author and co-author of 13 books, of about 50 scientific articles (in peer-reviewed journals), and of approximately 20 book chapters.
holds a post-doc position at the Institute of Sports Science (University of Bern), at the department for Sport sociology and management. His research focus is on voluntary sports organizations like sports clubs and sport federations and, in this context, analyzing topics like decision-making, voluntary management, organizational change, learning capacity or again members interests.
holds a Master’s degree in Sport Science and Business Administration, obtained at the University of Bern in 2014. She joined the research team of Professionalisation in Sport Federations in Switzerland in June 2015 as a PhD candidate at the Institute of Sport Science at the University of Bern (Switzerland). Her research focus lies on typologies of professionalizing sport organisations.
is Full Professor at the University of Bern and Director of the Institute of Sport Science. His main fields of interest are sport organisation research, particularly sport club development, as well as sport participation and life course research. He is President-Elect and Vice-President of the European Association for Sociology of Sport (eass).
holds a Master’s Degree in Organization and Knowledge of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of the University of Lucerne (Switzerland). Her Bachelor’s Degree she obtained in Communication and Social Sciences. Following her studies, worked as a scientific assistant and later as a project scientist at Swiss Paraplegic Research in Nottwil (Switzerland). There, her research focus lied on social integration and participation issues. In August 2014, Kaisa Ruoranen joined the research team of the here presented project on Professionalisation of Sport Federations in Switzerland. At the same time, and in the context of the project, she works on her doctoral thesis in Sport Sciences at the Institute of Sport Science at the University of Bern (Switzerland). Her main focus is on (neo-) institutionalism, non-profit organizations, voluntarism, as well as institutional differences between countries.
Kaisa Ruoranen grew up in Finland. After having graduated in 2002, she initially came to Switzerland as an au pair for one year. After finally two years as an au pair, she began her studies at the University of Lucerne, and since has lived in Switzerland.
is Professor at the Institute of Human Movement Science and Health of the Technische Universität Chemnitz in Germany. After finishing his doctorate at TU Chemnitz in Sport Sciences he received the venia docendi in Sport Science at the University of Bern in 2013. His research interests relate to different aspects of human resource management in voluntary sport clubs, and sport club development. Actual research reflects a combination of individual and situational perspectives for the investigation of individual acting in sporting contexts.
European Sport Management Quarterly, 2015 (Volume 15, No. 4, p. 407 – 433)
Professionalisation of sport federations – a multi-level framework for analysing forms, causes and consequences
Siegfried Nagel, Torsten Schlesinger, Emmanuel Bayle & David Giauque
European Journal of Sport and Society, 2016
Developing a conceptual framework to analyse professionalisation in sport federations
Kaise Ruoranen, Christoffer Klenk, Torsten Schlesinger, Emmanuel Bayle, Josephine Clausen, David Giauque & Siegfried Nagel
European Association for Sport Management Conference, Bern 5-8 September 2017
Ruoranen, Klenk, Lang, Schlesinger, Bayle, Clausen, Giauque, & Nagel: “Causes and Consequences of Professionalisation in Swiss National Sport Federations”
Clausen, Bayle, Giauque, Nagel, Ruoranen, Lang, Klenk & Schlesinger: “Dynamics of Professionalisation in International Sport Federations“
Société Suisse des Sciences du Sport/Sportwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft der Schweiz, Zurich 8-9 February 2017
Clausen & Bayle: ” The role of major sport events: an assessment of international sport federations’ event portfolio and economic model”
European Association for Sport Management Conference, Warsaw 7-10 September 2016
Ruoranen, Klenk, Lang, Schlesinger, Clausen, Giauque, Bayle & Nagel: “Causes and consequences of professionalization in Swiss national sport federations“
Lang, Lamprecht, Ruoranen, Klenk, Schlesinger, Bayle, Clausen, Giauque & Nagel: “Types of professionalization in national sport federations”
Clausen, Giauque, Nagel, Ruoranen, Lang, Klenk, Schlesinger & Bayle: “Forms and consequences of professionalization in international sport federations: between rationalization and political reality“
Société Suisse des Sciences du Sport/Sportwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft der Schweiz, Bern 18-19 February 2016
Clausen, Bayle, Giauque: “International sport federations: drivers for and barriers to professionalization”
Nagel, Gygax: “Sportverbandsentwicklung bei Swiss Orienteering“
European Association for Sport Management Conference, Dublin 9-12 September 2015
European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference, Dublin 10-13 June 2015
Ruoranen, Klenk, Schlesinger, Nagel: “What does professionalisation mean? Developing a conceptual framework of professionalisation in sports federations”
Société Suisse des Sciences du Sport/Sportwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft der Schweiz, Lausanne 12-13 February 2015
Klenk, Ruoranen, Schlesinger, Nagel: “What does Professionalisation mean? Perception of Professionalization in Sport Federations”
Clausen, Bayle, Giauque: “The professionalisation of sport federations in Switzerland_its beginnings and the reasons behind”