Trajectories of precariousness
PhD Supervisor: Dario Spini
My thesis is situated within the project “Vulnerability processes across the life course: Cumulative disadvantages, critical events, and socio-psychosocial resources” of NCCR LIVES. The subject of my research is trajectories of precarity, with a definition of precarity as suggested by social quality theory. This approach considers several life-domains, instead of referring to financial aspects only to conceptualize precariousness. The individual as agent of his/her life is central to this approach: Social quality is the individuals’ capacity to act and interact in society. The aim of this thesis is to explore the personal trajectories of individuals in various life situations which could be considered « precarious » by means of biographical methods, namely life calendars. Special attention will be paid to agency and perceived self-efficacy, as well as to the type of interactions with the institutional framework that are maintained by the individuals.
Comparative patterns of long-term care in old age in Western Europe
PhD Supervisor : Dominique Joye
My research aims at providing a sociological insight into the way European societies deal with the issues of demographic ageing and long-term care. How do societies provide services to support and structure elderly care in Western Europe and what are the meanings people in long-term care give to their situations? Several factors such as national solidarity regimes, familial cultures and social representations of ages could explain why the way people experience old age in Europe is plural. Using a comprehensive approach, the project focuses on the day-to-day experiences of older people in long-term care across several European countries. It questions the norms of reciprocity in different care regimes and precisely the notions of autonomy and dependency and their implications on the daily life of elderly people. Specific attention is paid to Welfare States and ageing policies as the main framework to structure these experiences and to the subjective meanings people attribute to it. The survey is divided into two types of materials; a quantitative one with SHARE (the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) and a qualitative one including interviews with older people living in different countries. My thesis aims at proposing a typology of long-term care experiences in old age across Western Europe.
Cross-border socio-occupational mobility: between constructivist issues and realistic approach to their historical evolution
PhD Supervisor: Dominique Joye
Our PhD deals with the way in which statistical measurement can operate across different national contexts that are not unified by common statistical categories and concepts. To answer this question, we chose to study the daily mobility of French cross-border workers in the Swiss labour market. We first proceeded with an original study aimed at testing the relevance of French socio-occupational categories developed by INSEE, in a context in which they were not supposed to be applied. Secondly, after having checked the relevance of INSEE’s socio-occupational categories in this context, we tested the hypothesis that cross-border mobility corresponds to strategies, especially for younger generations, of escape from downward social mobility in the French labour market. This expectation has been confirmed through a comparison of status attainment between cross-border workers and French workers (who stay in the French labour market) and also through a comparison of cohort dynamics of status attainment in France and in Switzerland.
Transition to adulthood among the second-generation of immigrants in Switzerland
PhD Supervisors: Jean-Marie Le Goff & Jacques-Antoine Gauthier
My thesis aims at studying the integration into the labour market of the second-generation of immigrants living in Switzerland. A great number of studies have demonstrated that the level of education and the occupational status of migrants seem to improve from generation to generation. Notwithstanding, it is of common knowledge that the young from the most recent waves of migration are often disadvantaged compared to those who are originating from the older ones. Indeed, from the 1980s, many migrants coming from Turkey and former Yugoslavia arrived in Switzerland with a precarious status. This latter, which impeded their professional integration, seems to have been transmitted to their children. Our empirical research will be based on the study Cohort LIVES. Its sample will be composed of 1800 people, Swiss and foreigners, aged 15-24 and who have been schooled in Switzerland. Also, we will resort to two methods of analysis. On the one hand, the sequential analysis will allow us to show how the educational and occupational trajectories of individuals may differ according to various sociodemographic factors, such as ethnicity, gender etc. In the second place, the event history analysis, which measures the probability that an event occurs after a certain period of time, will show in which ways structural patterns can influence the occurrence of critical events, such as leaving from the parental home.
Selection criteria established by companies and self-valorisation strategies used by the unemployed
Phd Supervisors : Felix Bühlmann and Jean-François Bickel
The Swiss labour market is well known for its low unemployment rate and for its flexibility. It is less known for its high segmentation, especially by gender and nationality. These characteristics support inequalities of access to employment, more specifically for the more vulnerable segments of the population, such as young people, women, workers above the age of 50 and migrants. The aim of this project is to analyse how job position has an influence on the employee selection process (by companies) and on the way that employees and the unemployed present themselves and evaluate their jobs. This thesis is part of the research project “Overcoming vulnerability to unemployment: possibilities and limits of the so-called “active” social policies” of the NCCR-LIVES.
The empirical work focuses on the construction sector in western Switzerland. Construction companies are very structured, with high levels of ranks, and they are strongly segmented by nationality and gender. This research centres on two complementary aspects: 1) concerning the employers, the evaluation of mechanisms conducive to the selection of a candidate for a particular job position; 2) concerning the job seekers, the self-valorisation strategies that they use when applying for a job. We are interested in their perception of the situation of unemployment: a) how is it affected by their life course/ professional history characteristics? And b) how the perception of the situation determines the self-valorisation strategies when they apply for a job? To what extent are these strategies adequate for the evaluation criteria and functioning of organisations? An understanding of these different realities can consequently engage a critical view on the adequacy of actual employment public policies. Data collection with these groups of actors is being done through face-to-face interviews with the employees, employers and the job seekers.
Human rights, institutional violence and life course: Experiences, representations and attitudes of Portuguese immigrants in Switzerland.
Ana Isabel Alves Barbeiro
PhD Supervisor: Dario Spini
The phenomena of migration, as well as the policies and the representations associated with them, constitute a field concentrated in the paradoxical relationships between rights, their universality and their violations.This research aims to study the social representations of immigrant rights and tolerance towards the violations of these rights. It aims specifically to understand how these representations are shaped by experiences of institutional violence over the course of the biographical trajectories of immigrants and by the strategies they mobilise to cope with this violence. These phenomena will be studied with a focus on migration trajectories (namely, those of Portuguese immigrants in Switzerland). Qualitative and quantitative procedures will be articulated through the collection of life stories and life calendars, as well as the quantitative study of attitudes and social representations of the rights of migrants and of institutional violence towards migrants.
Differences in well-being in the ageing process: an analysis of retrospective perceptions of events and their relation to the stress process
PhD Supervisor: Dario Spini
The aim of this project is to understand different perceptions of well-being among the elderly within a stress process and life course paradigm. The events experienced and accumulated throughout life mean that by the time people reach a certain age they possess unequal social and individual resources (Dannefer, on 2003). I concentrate on the relation between resources, well-being and the perception of past events. The purpose is to understand differences in perceptions of well-being among the elderly by investigating the way they judge, retrospectively, events which have marked their lives, taking into account differential resources, stemming from their diverging routes through life. It is thus a question of understanding how a person’s current evaluation of particular events experienced in the past can influence how those events relate to well-being.
Teenagers’ occupational choice in Switzerland
Carolina Carvalho Arruda
PhD Supervisor: Dominique Joye
In my thesis, I aim to analyse the different causes of teenagers’ occupational aspirations in Switzerland. I focus on the importance of gender identities in the elaboration of individual occupational attainment. This explanatory factor will be combined with two others: social class and immigration background. My hypothesis is that pupils’ attachment to gender roles and identities modifies the influence of both social and ethnic origin. In order to test this hypothesis, I will use the results from the « PNR 60 - Professional aspirations and orientations of girls and boys towards the end of compulsory school: what determinants for more equality? » survey. This research is financed by the SNSF and carried out among a sample of young students, as well as their parents and their teachers.
Ecuadorian immigration in Switzerland: Transnational social networks, social capital and their influence on structural and socio-cultural integration
Raúl Burgos Paredes
PhD Supervisor: Laura Bernardi
My dissertation endeavors to understand the structural and socio-cultural integration of Ecuadorian immigrants in Switzerland and what the impact of social capital and transnational activities is on such integration. Empirical results in the literature on the relationship that transnational activities have with integration are divergent, although some forms of social capital have been found to aid the integration of non-western immigrants in Europe. In trying to operationalize the concept of social capital in the case of international migration, I will apply social capital instruments through an in-depth qualitative study, which sheds light on how resources are activated and used by Ecuadorian immigrants. Data on documented and undocumented immigrants will be collected, enabling me to do a systematic comparison of the strength and access to social capital among these two different groups, the degree of involvement in transnational activities, and the different strategies they take in order to be integrated in Switzerland. Furthermore, attention will be paid to subjective perceptions of immigrants for the meaning of integration.
Educational Trajectories: Social Origin and Psychological Resources
PhD Co-Supervisors: Florence Passy and Dominique Joye
This project focuses on the links between social origin, psychological resources and educational trajectories in Switzerland. The educational trajectories at the upper secondary level (apprenticeship, Matura, etc.), examined using sequence analysis, are at the center of the investigation. The following questions,are addressed: a) How do social origin and psychological resources influence these trajectories? b) How do psychological resources evolve under the influence of the social origin and the educational trajectories? c) What is the impact of the upper secondary educational trajectory on the following educational path and professional integration? And how is this impact modified through social origin and psychological resources? d) How do the detected links vary in relation to regional differences in school systems and local labour markets? The main goal is to analyse how psychological resources can lessen any negative effect that social origin has on educational trajectories and to understand how regional characteristics also help to reduce it. Databases used: TREE and ch-x 2010/11
Elites and Occupational Careers in the Swiss Banking Industry (1980-2010)
PhD Supervisor: Felix Bühlmann
This thesis endeavours to understand the evolution of the Swiss Banking Industry between 1980 and 2010 from a life course perspective. It concentrates on two groups of actors: Elites and Young professionals. The study will address the two following research questions: 1) We want to explore how the historical development of the Swiss banking field has affected the composition of its elites. What type of resources do the banking elites possess? How have they been acquired and how have they evolved across the two selected periods? 2) We seek to examine what are the careers patterns and the representations of a cohort of young banking professionals. What are their educational and occupational trajectories? How do they differ in terms of resources? To what extend do the careers of elites and young professionals share common characteristics? In order to tackle these questions we apply a mixed method design that combines sequential analysis, multiple correspondence analysis and biographical interviews. We use an existing database on Swiss elites that we will extend by the collection of additional data on banking elites and we will conduct a survey with young professionals working for less than 10 years in the bank field.
Precarious occupational integration and social disaffiliation process: The cases of Switzerland and Portugal
PhD Supervisors: Dominique Joye and Karin Wall
Labor relations have undergone significant changes over the last decades. Job precariousness and work precariousness weaken “assured” and “stable” occupational integrations. These changes challenge “rigid”, continuous and foreseeable conception of occupational career (the choice of a profession, training, labor market integration, promotion and retirement), and question both material and symbolic recognition that are linked to professional activities. Facing this “rise of uncertainties”, we analyse the impact of precarious occupational integration on social ties, and how particular groups of people are unequally exposed to the “disaffiliation” risk. In order to answer these questions, we draws on data from the FNS study « Family TiMes » and data from a same design research conducted in Portugal. Moreover, analysing occupational integration and social ties of two cohorts (1950-1955, 1970-1975) in two different countries allow us to develop a framework taking into account the specific context studied.
The role of social contacts in finding a way out of unemployment
Anna von Ow
PhD Supervisors : Daniel Oesch
This PhD thesis is part of a research project, which explores the role of networks as a job search strategy for the unemployed. Thirty to seventy percent of jobs are found by means of social contacts, which clearly highlights their importance as a job search strategy. Furthermore, potential employers might interpret unemployment duration as a negative signal for productivity and effort in looking for a job. Therefore, it is crucial, especially for the unemployed, to be as well informed as possible about different search strategies and their effectiveness. Our study is based on a large-scale survey carried out among 4'500 unemployed job seekers in the canton of Vaud. The survey data have been collected using two questionnaires – one at the beginning and one at the end of unemployment. These data are also combined with administrative data stemming from the unemployment insurance register.Using this comprehensive data set, we investigate the interplay between job seekers' and social contacts' characteristics and its effect on the likelihood of finding a job, on how long this takes and on the type of job. We also explore whether job seekers succeed in mobilizing their social contacts in order to get help finding a job. This allows us to contribute new empirical findings to the literature on the procedural character of job search by means of social contacts, which so far has mainly been investigated theoretically.
Women without children
PhD Supervisors: Laura Bernardi
This study researches the implications of social norms on motherhood on the life courses of childless and childfree women. These norms are given in historical time, are related to fertility, to social representations of family and couple, and to life course regulations and gender roles. In the Swiss context where gender roles are strongly modelled around the man-bread-winner / women carer nuclear family setting, transition to motherhood still represented an expected transition. Some scholars suggest that the process, which leads to childlessness, enhance forms of vulnerability. Based on thematic content analysis of N=68 semi-structured interviews of heterosexual and childless women and men, we use a life course and gender perspective. We argue that childless women are not necessarily vulnerable since their life course, aside from motherhood, is not defined as a–typical or typical.
The Lisbon Strategy on R&D and Innovation in Europe: Regional Dynamics, Inequalities, and Measurement.
PhD Supervisor: Jean-Philippe Leresche
The EU Lisbon Agenda (2000) purported to make Europe the most competitive, knowledge-based economy by 2010. Focusing on the economic aspect of the Agenda, this thesis attempts to elucidate whether or not the Lisbon guidelines actually translate into better innovative performance, on the one hand, and to gauge whether political aspects also enter into the equation. Analyses will be conducted at the national and regional level to compare the pre-Lisbon and post-Lisbon periods and test the hypotheses, controlling for economic variables enumerated in the Agenda itself. Furthermore, I will study potential discrepancies across European countries and their regions in terms of diverging starting-points, which should lead to different rates of progress towards improving innovative output. Finally, the thesis also aims to point out recurrent measurement issues in relation to the adequacy of available data and the comparability of different units of analysis utilized throughout the study.
Coping with unemployment: strategies and resources
PhD Supervisor : Felix Bühlmann
This project investigates the socio-psychological strategies used to face a situation of vulnerability due to a period of unemployment. This topic is split in three main questions:
Do the work trajectories follow typical paths when characterized by a period of unemployment ?
Which strategies do the actors use to organize their resources and cope with this period of vulnerability ?
Do these strategies change in time and space ?
The analysis is based on individual employment trajectories codified from the longitudinal information collected in the Swiss Household Panel. The sequences are aligned on the first month of unemployment; recurrent paths are described and related to a wide set of resources including economic, demographic, relational, psychological and emotional factors. Time influence is considered distinguishing the trajectories occurred in the pre-2008 European economic crisis and the trajectories occurred in the successive period. Geographical variations are considered comparing the sequences from five Swiss macro-regions defined according to the differences in local policies against unemployment. Methodologically, I apply a life course perspective and a multidimensional approach using sequence analysis and statistical modelling. The central methodological issue is to go beyond descriptions of static variable associations to a description of relationships between processes.
Transition into adulthood of children immigrants in Switzerland: Analysis of familial and professional orientations of Turkish and Albanian youth.
PhD Co-Supervisors : Laura Bernardi, Guy Elcheroth
Conducted as part of the NCCR-LIVES IP2, this thesis focuses on the initial familial and professional orientations children of migrants have in comparison to Swiss youth from similar socio-economic backgrounds. We are particularly interested in the resource mobilization process, in relation to these two orientations, that Turkish and Albanian youth experience during the transition to adulthood. The primary research concern is to identify the mechanisms by which young adults’ social networks influence the direction of their paths in life. To do this, we first use data taken from the (ESPA) in order to identify the familial and professional trajectories of youth. Second, we take advantage of the pilot survey of the latest wave of PSM (III), which uses network sampling, and allows us to examine the links between networks and migrant youths’ familial and professional life trajectories.
Transition towards parenthood in Western Switzerland: an analysis of the ‘Becoming parent’ survey
PhD Supervisor : Jean-Marie Le Goff
For my dissertation I use the Becoming parents survey data. I am interested in the appearance of the gender master status (Levy et Krüger, 2000 et 2001). This concept explains the traditionalization process that is brought about by institutional constraints, and which couples undergo during the transition to parenthood. With this view, I am at currently researching the links between what couples express as their child-care sharing intentions before and after the birth of their first child, and the actual division of tasks. I plan to identify which factors have a large impact on these intentions and practices. I will also analyse how couples foresee the transition to parenthood in terms of work, the allocation of child-care duties (to minders or child care facilities) and familial tasks (housework and child care) sharing and what they actually do.
What do parents do for their children? Aspirations, resources and strategies of immigrants’ parental investment in Switzerland
PhD Supervisor : Laura Bernardi
Immigrants are often seen as a disfavoured part of the population. Nonetheless, literature shows that some immigrant groups have better educational outcomes than their native counterparts at equal socio-economic status. It is supposed that parental investment might act as a mediator of the effect of social background, diminishing the negative impact of a lower SES. Indeed, a greater parental investment through higher aspirations and a stronger emphasis on education as well as high cultural capital activities has proven to be part of the explanation. However, according to the existing literature, great disparities within the immigrant population can be observed. Actually, some immigrant groups seem to continuously suffer lower outcomes than natives. Thus, it is not clear why and how certain parents manage to transform their aspirations for their children into higher outcomes while others do not succeed. We build a three-dimension concept of parental investment including aspirations, resources and strategies in order to understand what immigrant parents do to support their children’s education and why.
With an auto-administrated questionnaire distributed to parents of 9 to 16 years old children, we will examine differences between Swiss natives and different immigrant groups in terms of aspirations and strategies. We assume that a lack of resources might prevent some immigrant parents to provide the strategies that are needed to meet their aspirations. We will conduct semi-directed interviews with a sample of individuals from the aforementioned quantitative study that reflects classical situations as well as atypical type of parental investment in different immigrant groups. This will allow us to understand the articulation of the three dimensions of the parental investment concept.
The impact of survey error on the study of vulnerability
Rosa Sanchez Tome
PhD Supervisor : Dominique Joye
The past decades have seen a growing interest in subjective measures of vulnerability and wellbeing, corresponding with an increase in the quantity, quality and availability of life quality data. However, traditional survey modes of data collection such as telephone surveys fail to obtain satisfactory data in terms of quality and cost. In Switzerland, new survey designs are used in order to overcome low response rates, nonresponse bias due to the underrepresentation of potentially vulnerable groups and measurement problems.
My objective is to study the effect that survey design has on the accuracy of the information obtained through surveys on vulnerability and wellbeing. Specifically, I focus on the mode of data collection, a crucial element of survey design that is known to affect both response propensity and respondents’ answers, making it difficult to compare estimates that have been obtained through different modes. My analysis is based in on a mixed mode experiment and complemented with other datasets that are related to vulnerability and/or wellbeing measurement, such as the European Social Survey.
Family form versus family substance. An empirical study on the role of policies in lone parents’ life course in French- speaking Switzerland.
PhD Supervisor : Laura Bernardi
My thesis aims at unveiling the role of the policy context in LPs’ wellbeing in two steps, combining a macro-institutional perspective with a micro-individual perspective. In the first part, I will focus on LPs’ poverty – by far the most common among all outcomes and highly connected with other negative outcomes - and conduct a meta-analysis of the existing literature on the relationship between family policy variations and LPs’ poverty across developed welfare states, to critically summarize the existing knowledge on this relationship. In the second empirical part I will focus on Switzerland. Initially I will analyse how social policies at federal level, in Vaud and Geneva portray parenting. Subsequently I will conduct a longitudinal qualitative case study on a sample of about 40 LPs, paying attention to the way in which they “do family” and face moral dilemmas over their life course in Vaud and Geneva. Finally I will link evidence from the policy analysis and the in-depth study to uncover the associations between LPs’ circumstances and agency and the policy construction of parenting in French-speaking Switzerland.
What are the long-term benefits of vocational training?
PhD Supervisor : Daniel Oesch
The Swiss education system emphasizes the dual vocational training. Many consider it as efficient, in particular with respect to the integration of the young workforce. If entry into the labor market is indeed facilitated by the vocational education training, it is crucial to explore its long-term benefits. In a world subject to technological change as ours, does acquiring specific professional skills enable workers to meet the needs of the labor market and to take advantage of the education throughout one’s career?
To answer this question, I analyze longitudinal data to observe individuals’ careers throughout their professional trajectories. I compare the higher secondary vocational education training with general education to shed light on the different career paths made possible by these two kinds of education. One hypothesis is that skills acquired during general education training are more easily transferable and less quickly obsolete.
I compare Switzerland with Germany – a country with an education system similar to Switzerland – and with the United Kingdom – a country with an education system that emphasizes vocational education training to a much lower extent than Switzerland – to observe if similar effects occur in these three contexts.
Recovery processes after an episode of mental illness.
Hannah Sophie Klaas
PhD Supervisor : Dario Spini
My thesis is situated within the field of mental health research. I investigate recovery processes after the onset of an episode of mental illness. I am interested in variables that impact recovery positively in the short term and in the long term. Regarding the personal level, I am analysing identity processes and control strategies underlying recuperation at different time points. I am further interested in the associations of these variables with depressive symptoms. Concerning the contextual level, I am looking at regional variations in Switzerland regarding indicators for varying degrees of stigmatisation of people suffering from a mental illness. For my analyses I use different longitudinal prospective databases such as the “Swiss Household Panel” (SHP) and the “Traitement et Intervention Précoces dans les troubles Psychotiques” (TIPP), as well as own collected retrospective mixed-methods data.
Missing data: tests and causality in longitudinal contexts
PhD Supervicor : André Berchtold
My PhD thesis is in the field of statistics. More specifically, it covers the statistical problem of unobserved observations. I will develop statistical methods for handling unobserved information, be able to determine the mechanisms explaining missing data, and to impute missing data in a longitudinal context with strict respect for the possible causality relationships between successive waves of a survey. These new tools will be applied to simulated data and to several LIVES datasets.
Missing data can have different mechanisms: missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), and missing not at random (MNAR). These different mechanisms define the technique to use for analysing datasets with missing data.
The first objective of my thesis is the development of a new test applicable to all data types and able to distinguish between the three cases of missing data. The second objective is to describe missing data as a mixture of generating mechanisms, to define a typology of these mechanisms, and finally to investigate the capacity of tests to also work with such data. The third goal of my thesis is then to develop an imputation method specific to longitudinal data with strict respect for causality principles.
Methodologically, my thesis will combine theoretical developments, simulated numerical experiments and applications to several real longitudinal datasets collected within LIVES.
Retirement, would you? A micro sociological approach of the end of career for older unemployed
Kaback O Jean Pascal Correa
PhD Supervisor: René Knüsel
The thesis is part of the NSF research project «End of professional career : Swiss challengers of a situation in ferment» which aims "to understand the transformations of the reorganization of retirement in Switzerland and issues associated with it". This thesis focuses specifically on the analysis of individual-society relations, with older-unemployed as an entry point. Hence a micro-sociological approach that focuses on the study of the behavior of unemployed older workers (50 and over) relative to retirement. In the Swiss context, what are the factors that interact on the "decision" of an older worker (the senior-unemployed, in this case) to leave the labor market? Given the pension-related concerns or the quality of post-working life expectations, etc., who are older-unemployed willing to retire without seeking to re-enter the labor market? Beyond representations and older Workers subjectivity, whereupon the decision to "rest" or to reposition the workforce will it be based?