Fin de carrière professionnelle; enjeux suisses d’une situation en voie d’ébullition
Durée du projet : 01.04.2014 - 31.03.2018
Equipe de recherche : René Knüsel (Unil), Jean-Marie Le Goff (Unil), Jean-Pascal Correa (Unil), Olga Ganjour (Unil)
Source de financement : Fonds national Suisse de la recherche scientifique (FNS)
Ce projet de recherche tente d’appréhender la situation particulière des seniors en fin de carrière pour comprendre les difficultés particulières que ce groupe de personnes connaît depuis quelques années et anticiper les problèmes qu’il connaîtra une fois à la retraite. La démarche se fait à partir de données quantitatives recueillies dans les grandes enquêtes nationales et par une démarche qualitative.
Info entraide Suisse
Durée du projet : 01.01.2015 - 30.06.2017
Equipe de recherche : René Knüsel (Unil), Jürgen Stremlow (Unilu), Hakim Ben Salah (Unil), Elena Scozzari (Unil)
Source de financement : divers financements institutionnels
Recherche sur la structuration, les activités, le développement des associations suisses d’entraide autogérées en Suisse, en partenariat avec Info Entraide suisse ; mandat exécuté conjointement avec la Haute Ecole de Travail Social de Lucerne. Cette démarche menée conjointement à Lausanne et à Lucerne vise à comprendre la manière dont s’est constitué le champ de l’entraide autogérée sur l’ensemble du territoire suisse. Les travaux visent à faire un état les lieux statistiques, mais aussi à comprendre comment évoluent les associations oeuvrant dans ce domaine en Suisse.
Durée du projet : 01.01.2014 - 31.12.2016
Equipe de recherche : Guy Elcheroth (Unil), Irène Maffi (Unil), Sandra Penic (Unil), Sonia Nimr (Birzeit University), Ramila Usoof-Thowfeek (ICES), Neloufer de Mel (ICES), Leonidas Ndayisaba (Unesco), Onesphore Baroreraho (Hope Africa)
Chargé-e de communication : Nadine Nibigira (Hope Africa), Harini Dias Bandaranayke (ICES), Hamzeh Asad (Birzeit University)
Doctorants : Zacharia Bady (Unil), Tsering McKenzi (Unil), Sumedha Jayakody (ICES), Esther Surenthiraraj (ICES), Aloys Batungwanayo (Hope Africa), Amal Zayed (Birzeit University), Mai Albzour (Birzeit University)
Source de financement : Fonds national suisse de la recherche scientifique (FNS)
Le Projet Mémoires Plurielles vise à documenter la pluralité des mémoires sur des passés conflictuels, à décortiquer les processus au travers desquels des récits de guerre deviennent officiels ou tombent dans l’oubli et à soutenir des scientifiques locaux qui étudient les mémoires vivantes dans des sociétés marquées par des conflits. Le projet réunit, en partenariat, des chercheurs burundais, sri-lankais, palestiniens, suisses et d’autres chercheurs internationaux, provenant de différentes disciplines scientifiques et motivés par une question commune : La préservation d’une pluralité de mémoires vivantes peut-elle rendre les communautés plus résilientes face à l’exploitation des traumatismes d’hier par les bellicistes de demain ?
Research group on collective vulnerability and social change
The Research Group on Collective Vulnerability and Social Change is part of the Institute of Social Sciences at the University of Lausanne. Its members share a common interest in the way collective calamities such as war or social crisis affect the fabric of community life. Their joint research activities organise around several core questions: What makes collective vulnerability different from the sum of individual fragilities? Why do the disruption of social practices and the spread of moral ambiguity constitute traumatic experiences in themselves? When do collective catastrophes provide an impetus for progressive social change? Which collective resources can people draw upon to resist spirals of anomie or to overcome historic legacies of violent breakdown?
Over the last decade, these questions have motivated a variety of studies in the following subfields:
• Collective vulnerability, conflict and human rights
• Collective values, social stability and change
• Political nationalism and ethnic violence
• Collective resistance and disobedience
• Shared beliefs and community resilience
• The combination of micro- and macro-level approaches
However, the Transition to Adulthood and Collective Experiences Surveys (TRACES) conducted in 2005 and 2006 across the entire region of the former Yugoslavia, with the aim to document collective exposure to violent breakdown and the impact of war on one generation, has played an outstanding role in the history of the research group. Currently, as two doctoral theses drawing on the material gathered from this project and an edited synthesis of the overall findings are in their final stages, the group is preparing its own transition and exploring ways to apply theoretical models and methodological tools yielded by previous research to new sites and phenomena.
The research group is firmly rooted in European social psychology and is guided by an understanding of social psychology as an interdisciplinary crossroad in the midst of the social sciences, rather than as a sub-discipline of psychology. The group is linked to the Lausanne Life Course and Inequality Research Centreand to the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research , ‘LIVES – Overcoming vulnerability’. Its members are involved in a dense network of scientific collaborations with excellent international research groups.
Guy Elcheroth is a senior lecturer in the social psychology of conflict and social change and chair of the research group. Concentrating initially on moral climates in postwar societies, his research focus has broadened to the processes by which people mobilisecollectively in periods of societal instability and to the interaction between bottom-up and top-down dynamics in critical transitions. To study these processes empirically, he is particularly interested in innovative approaches to comparative survey methodology and mixed methods research. He has previously been the research coordinator of the TRACES project, a post-doctoral fellow at the University of St Andrews, in Scotland, and a lecturer in conflict and mediation at the Free University of Brussels (ULB).
Rachel Fasel Hunziker is writing a PhD thesis on the framework of the TRACES project. Combining individual and collective level perspectives, she is interested in how individuals cope and react when confronted to victimisation situations due to war, economic precariousness or injustice. Her work focuses on the resources and shared values that people can rely on when facing victimisation situations, such as religious beliefs or the belief in a just world: are these beliefs shattered or strengthened in case of victimisation and how are they related to people's well-being? She is currently the scientific officer of NCCR LIVES.
Stephanie Glaeser is a PhD student affiliated with NCCR LIVES. Her research examines the links between social inequalities, collective identification, community cohesion and well-being. She studies how social rifts can be detrimental to the collective and, conversely, how social climates can represent a source of collective resilience across different levels and in different contexts (Switzerland and Europe). Before joining the research group, she has presented at the Free University of Brussels (ULB) a Master thesis on the links between young Germans' collective memory of the Holocaust and their attitudes towards today's minorities.
Davide Morselli is a senior researcher affiliated with NCCR LIVES, where he coordinates research projects on individual and contextual vulnerability. He received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Bologna. He is interested in processes of social change, contextual influence on individual attitudes and values, and inter-individual and intergroup differences. Previously, he has been conducting research on obedience and disobedience to authority, social movements, intergroup dynamics, prejudice, and social responsibility.
Dario Spini is full professor of social psychology and the life course. His main research interests cover, on the one hand, vulnerability in the life course (transition to adulthood and very old age), health, beliefs and self-regulation and, on the other hand, human rights, values and collective vulnerability. He has been the principal investigator of the TRACES interdisciplinary research program and is now the director of NCCR LIVES.
Sandra Penic is a PhD student studying the impact of individual and collective experiences of war victimisation and economic exclusion on the political attitudes and social identities of young adults in post-war former Yugoslavia. To study these phenomena, she combines quantitative analyses of the survey data collected within the TRACES project with rhetoric analyses of elite discourse, including speeches from political and religious leaders. She has been working before as a research assistant at the University of Zagreb.
Mina Rauschenbach is currently a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Leuven (K.U.L). Focusing on the relationships between various dimensions of transitional justice, such as reparation, accountability and truth, as well as intergroup processes related to perceived victimhood and group responsibility, she is analysing survey data collected in Bosnia and Serbia to assess the impact of these dimensions on support for reconciliation. Her main research areas concern perceptions of responsibility and intergroup processes in international conflicts, and their role in hindering or facilitating transitional processes. Previously, she worked as a Research Fellow at the Geneva academy of international humanitarian law and human rights on an interdisciplinary research project about the perspective of the accused of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
On collective vulnerability, conflict and human rights:
Elcheroth, G., & Spini, D. (2013). Beyond collective denial: Public reactions to human rights violations and the struggle over the moral continuity of communities. In D. Spini, G., Elcheroth, & D. Corkalo Biruski (eds.), War, Community, and Social Change: Collective experiences in the former Yugoslavia (pp. 205-226). Berlin & New York: Springer.
Elcheroth, G., & Spini, D. (2009). Public support for the prosecution of human rights violations in the former Yugoslavia. Peace and Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology, 15(2), 189-214
Spini D., Elcheroth G. & Fasel R. (2008). ,
Spini, D., & Doise, W. (2005). Universal human rights and duties as normative social representations. In N. J. Finkel& F. Moghaddam (Eds.), The psychology of human rights and duties : Empirical contributions and normative commentaries (pp. 21-48). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
On collective values, social stability and change:
Morselli, D., & Passini, S. (2012). Disobedience and support for democracy: Research on the World Values Survey. Social Science Journal, 49, 284-294.
Passini, S., & Morselli, D. (2010). Obedience to an Illegitimate Demand: The Effect of Perceived Democracy. Political Psychology, 31(3), 315-328.
Passini, S., & Morselli, D. (2013). The triadic legitimacy model: Understanding the dynamics between social change and social stability. New Ideas in Psychology, 31, 98–107.
On political nationalism and ethnic violence:
Penic, S., Corkalo Biruski, D. & Elcheroth, G. (2013) Threatened powers. When blaming “the others” grows out of internal instability and protest. In D. Spini, G., Elcheroth, & D. Corkalo Biruski. (eds.), War, Community, and Social Change: Collective experiences in the former Yugoslavia (pp. 163-182). Berlin & New York: Springer.
Elcheroth, G. & Spini, D. (2011).Political violence, intergroup conflict, and ethnic categories. In D. Bar-Tal (ed.), Intergroup conflicts and their resolution: A social psychological perspective (pp.175-194). New York: Psychology Press.
On collective resistance and disobedience:
Elcheroth, G., & Reicher, S. (in press). ‘Not our war, not our country’: A contextual analysis of Scottisch political rhetoric and popular understandings during the invasion of Iraq. British Journal of Social Psychology.
Passini, S., & Morselli, D. (2011). In the name of democracy: Disobedience and value-oriented citizenship. Journal of Community and Social Psychology, 21, 255–267.
Morselli, D., & Passini, S. (2010). Avoiding crimes of obedience: a comparative study of the autobiographies of M.K. Gandhi, N. Mandela & M.L. King. Peace & Conflict. Journal of Peace Psychology, 16 (3), 231-255.
Morselli, D. (in press). The olive tree effect: Future time perspective when future is uncertain. Culture & Psychology.
On shared beliefs and community resilience:
Fasel, R. & Spini, D. (2013). Shattered beliefs: How to cope when the world is not a just place? In D. Spini, G., Elcheroth, & D. Corkalo Biruski (eds.), War, Community, and Social Change: Collective experiences in the former Yugoslavia (pp. 183-198). Berlin & New York: Springer.
Morselli, D., & Passini, S. (2013). Beyond ethnic intolerance: Traces and benefits of ethnic diversity in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina. In D. Spini, G., Elcheroth, & D. Corkalo (eds.). War, Community, and Social Change: Collective experiences in the former Yugoslavia (pp. 105-124). Berlin & New York: Springer.
On the combination of micro- and macro-level approaches:
Elcheroth, G., Penic, S., Fasel, R., Giudici, F., Glaeser, S., Joye,D., Le Goff, J-M., Morselli, D., & Spini, D. (2013). Spatially weighted context data and their application to collective war experiences. Sociological Methodology, 14.
Elcheroth, G. Doise, W., & Reicher, S. (2011).
Morselli, D. & Passini, S. (2011). New perspective on the study of the authority relationship: Integrating individual and societal level research. Journal of Theory of Social Behaviour, 41, 291-307.
Spini, D., Elcheroth, G., & Fasel, R. (2013). Towards a community approach of the aftermath of war in the former Yugoslavia: Collective experiences, social practices, and representations. In D. Spini, G., Elcheroth, & D. Corkalo Biruski (eds.), War, Community, and Social Change: Collective experiences in the former Yugoslavia (pp. 3-24). Berlin & New York: Springer.
From 1991 to 2001, people in the former Yugoslavia faced massive levels of violence that took place in various regions of the country. The breakdown of the federal state and the violence that accompanied it implied changes and rearrangements in economic, political, and familial arenas, as well as in everyday life. Dramatic social changes greatly impacted individual life trajectories, and their ramifications remain evident even twenty years after the most tragic events. The TRACES project was created to develop an original perspective on the way people and communities adopt social practices and redefine shared worldviews in order to cope with the aftermath of such violent conflict.
Hence, the starting point of the project was an aspiration to document and analyse how social representations and social practices are reshaped by collective violence in a context of ethnic discourse: what are the effects of violence on the lives of people and what are the effects of collectively experienced victimisation on societal norms, attitudes and collective beliefs? Throughout the project, we stressed that mass violence has a de-structuring and restructuring role for manifold psychosocial processes. A combined top-down and bottom-up approach draws our attention not only to the way most people in the former Yugoslavia had endured war and dramatic societal changes but also to how they often resisted and sometimes overcame ethnic rivalry, violence and subsequent segregation. It enables to go beyond perspectives that depict most Yugoslavians of the time as either blind followers of ethnic war leaders or as people intrinsically violent and motivated by deep-rooted intra-ethnic loyalties and inter-ethnic animosities.
These goals have become concretised throughout a collective effort to overcome some of the limitations in our ways of looking at ethnic violence in former Yugoslavia that stem from previous research. In 2006, we set out to establish a new data set that was meant to open untrodden avenues for social scientists to reconstitute collective experiences in former Yugoslavia and to give those experiences their own spatial and temporal coordinates. The Transition to Adulthood and Collective Experiences Survey (TRACES) project has resulted in a unique new dataset. It has two main components: first, life event calendar data collected from a representative sample of people across all of former Yugoslavia (N = 3975) and, second, extensive data on political attitudes and social worldviews from members of the 1968-1974 birth cohort (N= 2254), who entered adulthood during the main war period.
The theme of transition to adulthood in a post-war context is at the core of this research. This stage is crucial in the life of an individual, as it will have a long-standing impact on his/her direction and will influence the system of beliefs and values in relation to the person's community. At the same time, the project aims to describe the collective experiences that have affected populations in former Yugoslavia during the armed conflict decade, from 1991 to 2001, and questions the consequences of massive violations of the most fundamental rights in war-torn communities, in particular, society’s capacity to reorganise life around common principles of justice and to create legitimate institutions promoting the implementation of these principles.
The idea of spatially weighted context data first emerged from the TRACES project. Against the backdrop of comparative survey research on the impact of collective war experiences across the former Yugoslavia, variegated factors revealed a need for new context analytic tools. However, although the path that led us to spatially weighted context data was based on a particular substantive agenda and research site, there are good reasons to believe that the methodological challenges that were revealed by these particular contingencies are not completely bounded to these contingencies. Thus, in the following analysis, we aimed to transfer this partially novel approach to contextual data analysis onto other research fields and sites and to stimulate a wider debate on the current methods of contextual analysis and their possible alternatives or extensions.
Descriptive and multilevel modelling analyses using spatially weighted context data complement classic multilevel regression in conditions where critical assumptions regarding the underlying structure of contextual data do not fully apply, more specifically, when contextual units lack clear-cut boundaries. In these circumstances, spatial weighting functions allow researchers to study open-ended contextual influences that unfold as a decreasing function of geographic and/or social distances.
The R package spacom has been developed to facilitate the use of the spatially weighted context data approach. Spacom’s functions can be used to construct and describe spatially weighted context data, to introduce spatially weighted contextual indicators in multilevel models (and estimate models through bootstrap procedures that provide robust point estimates and standard errors), and to diagnose spatial dependency in residuals from multilevel models. Typical analyses with spacom consist of four steps; first, the creation of spatial weights by applying a kernel function with a user-defined bandwidth value (i.e., scale) to a distance matrix provided by the user; second, the creation and description of spatially weighted context data from user-provided precise contextual indicators or micro-survey data; third, the performance of multilevel analyses with spatially weighted contextual indicators, including functions that provide robust point estimates and adjusted standard errors, obtained by stratified bootstrap resampling; fourth, the test of spatial dependency in upper-level residuals from spatially weighted multilevel analysis. Furthermore, spacom includes functions for exploratory scalar analysis, i.e., an analytical strategy for the direct examination of the scale effects of spatially weighted contextual indicators.
Spacom can be downloaded and installed from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN). The user has to provide several datasets: a dataset with individual level predictor and outcome variables, a dataset with micro-level data to generate contextual indicators by aggregation and/or a dataset with precise contextual indicators, and a distance matrix (a square matrix consisting of distances between contextual level units). A new helper package, called geospacom, now facilitates the generation of distance matrices used in the spacom package.
For any questions about spacom, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, or firstname.lastname@example.org
Reference : Junge, T., Penic, S., Cossutta, M., & and Elcheroth., G. (2013). Spacom: Spatially Weighted Context Data for Multilevel Modelling. R package version 1.0-0.
- Department of Psychology at the University of Zagreb
- Institute of Social Psychology at the London School of Economics
- Leuven Institute of Criminology at KU Leuven
- Social psychology group at St Andrews University
- Social psychology group at University of Connecticut
- Social psychology unit at Free University of Brussels (ULB)
- StrasslerCenter for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at Clark University
Durée du projet : 01.11.2013 - 31.10.2016
Equipe de recherche : Lavinia Gianettoni (Unil), Véronique Jaquier Erard (Unine), Marylène Lieber (Unige), Marta Roca i Escoda (Unil), Janine Dahinden (Unine), Pauline Delage (Unil), Géraldine Brown (Unige)
Notre groupe de recherche a pour objectifs d’actualiser et d’approfondir la connaissance et la compréhension des violences envers les femmes en Suisse, d’étendre le champ d’investigation des violences de genre à la population masculine et d’élaborer des outils de mesure contextuels permettant de rendre compte des processus et des asymétries des violences selon qu’elles sont agies/subies par des femmes ou par des hommes. Nous nous intéressons également au traitement institutionnel des violences envers les femmes et des violences de genre, que celles-ci surviennent dans une relation de couple, dans la sphère familiale, dans la sphère professionnelle ou dans l’espace public.
Nous collaborons étroitement avec l’enquête française VIRAGE (violences et rapports de genre) qui a pour objectif d’analyser les violences qui se déroulent dans différents espaces (familial, public, professionnel), et ce dans une perspective de genre. Par le biais d’une enquête de prévalence de grande envergure, cette recherche vise plus précisément l’élaboration d’une typologie des violences permettant notamment de préciser dans quelle mesure les violences subies par les femmes et par les hommes sont similaires par leur gravité, leur contexte et leurs conséquences.
Nos projets actuels :
- Lavinia Gianettoni, Véronique Jaquier Erard, Marylène Lieber et Marta Roca i Escoda
« Enquête de prévalence des violences auprès des étudiant-e-s universitaires en Suisse romande avec l’objectif de réaliser des analyses comparatives avec l’enquête "VIRAGE Universités" conduite en France ».
- Marylène Lieber, Marta Roca i Escoda, Pauline Delage et Géraldine Brown
« Emergence et reconfigurations d'un problème public. Les violences faites aux femmes en Suisse (1970-2012) », Projet FNS.
Nos projets terminés :
- Véronique Jaquier Erard
« L'influence de la multivictimisation et des traumatismes récurrents sur la santé mentale des femmes, leur consommation de substance et leur recours à l'agression », Projet FNS.