Thesis in progress
Cross-border socio-occupational mobility: between constructivist issues and realistic approach to their historical evolution
PhD Supervisor: Dominique Joye
Our PhD deals with the way in which statistical measurement can operate across different national contexts that are not unified by common statistical categories and concepts. To answer this question, we chose to study the daily mobility of French cross-border workers in the Swiss labour market. We first proceeded with an original study aimed at testing the relevance of French socio-occupational categories developed by INSEE, in a context in which they were not supposed to be applied. Secondly, after having checked the relevance of INSEE’s socio-occupational categories in this context, we tested the hypothesis that cross-border mobility corresponds to strategies, especially for younger generations, of escape from downward social mobility in the French labour market. This expectation has been confirmed through a comparison of status attainment between cross-border workers and French workers (who stay in the French labour market) and also through a comparison of cohort dynamics of status attainment in France and in Switzerland.
Does the emergence of parental leave policies in Switzerland challenge gendered representations of parental roles?
PhD Supervisor: Laura Bernardi
Switzerland is one of the few European countries that have not implemented parental leave policies (parental or paternity leave). However, it seems that in the last decade, the issue has been increasingly problematized in the public domain. This thesis has two objectives. First, describe the emergence of parental leave policies in Switzerland in the last decade. Second, analyse the representations of gender relations, in particular maternity and paternity through this emergence. Does the increased problematization of parental leave policies in Switzerland challenge gendered representations of parental roles? In order to answer this question, I analyse the media, political and economic spheres. Firstly, press articles on parental leave policies are analysed. Secondly, parliamentary propositions in favour of parental leave policies and their political treatment are investigated. Finally, practices and discourses with regard to discretionary parental leave policies implemented at the level of companies are analysed. The data is analysed following principles of discourse analysis.
Social mobility trends and mechanisms in Switzerland: An integrated analysis using classical mainstream approaches and the life course paradigm
PhD Supervisor: Dominique Joye
Numerous studies have looked at intergenerational social mobility trends and their underlying mechanisms in industrialised countries. However, to date little research has been carried out on this issue in Switzerland. Furthermore, by incorporating a life course perspective into classical mainstream approaches, my thesis aims to expand our understanding of social mobility processes. I employ a wide range of methods (e.g. log-linear models, event history analysis and multilevel models) to conduct a quantitative analysis based on more than 12 existing datasets, including the Swiss Household Panel. One part examines trends in intergenerational social mobility over time in Switzerland. In a second part, I analyse the driving mechanisms of social mobility over the life course and across time and place, with a specific focus on gender differences and the impact of occupational sex-segregation.
Human rights, institutional violence and life course: Experiences, representations and attitudes of Portuguese immigrants in Switzerland
Ana Isabel Alves Barbeiro
PhD Supervisor: Dario Spini
The phenomena of migration, as well as the policies and the representations associated with them, constitute a field concentrated in the paradoxical relationships between rights, their universality and their violations.This research aims to study the social representations of immigrant rights and tolerance towards the violations of these rights. It aims specifically to understand how these representations are shaped by experiences of institutional violence over the course of the biographical trajectories of immigrants and by the strategies they mobilise to cope with this violence. These phenomena will be studied with a focus on migration trajectories (namely, those of Portuguese immigrants in Switzerland). Qualitative and quantitative procedures will be articulated through the collection of life stories and life calendars, as well as the quantitative study of attitudes and social representations of the rights of migrants and of institutional violence towards migrants.
Vulnerabilities, identities, communities – a contextual analysis of climates of exclusion and solidarity in Switzerland
PhD Supervisor: Dominique Joye
The aim of this project is to study community climates in Switzerland by combining multilevel analyses and spatial approaches. The purpose is to analyse the role contextual factors play in the construction of local realities of exclusion or solidarity, in particular when the population is confronted with problematized minorities like asylum seekers: Which collective identities are relevant in contemporary Switzerland and how are they mobilized by political discourses that provide interpretative frameworks of collective vulnerabilities? To what extent does exposure to these discourses shape attitudes and behaviour towards minorities? How is the reception of these discourses influenced by prevailing climates of social trust and cohesion, and how are these climates in turn shaped by social inequalities? To study these questions, contextual indicators based on secondary sources will be linked to data from an original postal survey and to a more qualitative analysis of the observed dynamics in selected areas.
Differences in well-being in the ageing process: an analysis of retrospective perceptions of events and their relation to the stress process
PhD Supervisor: Dario Spini
The aim of this project is to understand different perceptions of well-being among the elderly within a stress process and life course paradigm. The events experienced and accumulated throughout life mean that by the time people reach a certain age they possess unequal social and individual resources (Dannefer, on 2003). I concentrate on the relation between resources, well-being and the perception of past events. The purpose is to understand differences in perceptions of well-being among the elderly by investigating the way they judge, retrospectively, events which have marked their lives, taking into account differential resources, stemming from their diverging routes through life. It is thus a question of understanding how a person’s current evaluation of particular events experienced in the past can influence how those events relate to well-being.
Teenagers’ occupational choice in Switzerland
Carolina Carvalho Arruda
PhD Supervisor: Dominique Joye
In my thesis, I aim to analyse the different causes of teenagers’ occupational aspirations in Switzerland. I focus on the importance of gender identities in the elaboration of individual occupational attainment. This explanatory factor will be combined with two others: social class and immigration background. My hypothesis is that pupils’ attachment to gender roles and identities modifies the influence of both social and ethnic origin. In order to test this hypothesis, I will use the results from the « PNR 60 - Professional aspirations and orientations of girls and boys towards the end of compulsory school: what determinants for more equality? » survey. This research is financed by the SNSF and carried out among a sample of young students, as well as their parents and their teachers.
Transition towards parenthood in Western Switzerland: an analysis of the ‘Becoming parent’ survey
PhD Supervisor : Jean-Marie Le Goff
For my dissertation I use the Becoming parents survey data. I am interested in the appearance of the gender master status (Levy et Krüger, 2000 et 2001). This concept explains the traditionalization process that is brought about by institutional constraints, and which couples undergo during the transition to parenthood. With this view, I am at currently researching the links between what couples express as their child-care sharing intentions before and after the birth of their first child, and the actual division of tasks. I plan to identify which factors have a large impact on these intentions and practices. I will also analyse how couples foresee the transition to parenthood in terms of work, the allocation of child-care duties (to minders or child care facilities) and familial tasks (housework and child care) sharing and what they actually do.
The Lisbon Strategy on R&D and Innovation in Europe: Regional Dynamics, Inequalities, and Measurement.
PhD Supervisor: Jean-Philippe Leresche
The EU Lisbon Agenda (2000) purported to make Europe the most competitive, knowledge-based economy by 2010. Focusing on the economic aspect of the Agenda, this thesis attempts to elucidate whether or not the Lisbon guidelines actually translate into better innovative performance, on the one hand, and to gauge whether political aspects also enter into the equation. Analyses will be conducted at the national and regional level to compare the pre-Lisbon and post-Lisbon periods and test the hypotheses, controlling for economic variables enumerated in the Agenda itself. Furthermore, I will study potential discrepancies across European countries and their regions in terms of diverging starting-points, which should lead to different rates of progress towards improving innovative output. Finally, the thesis also aims to point out recurrent measurement issues in relation to the adequacy of available data and the comparability of different units of analysis utilized throughout the study.
Labour Market Turbulence, Occupational Mobility and Workers’ Skill Development over the Life course
PhD Supervisor: Daniel Oesch
This thesis forms part of the ‘Economic Vulnerability’ project (NCCR LIVES), and examines the relationship between micro-level occupational mobility, educational attainment, and changing aggregate employment patterns over the last two decades. Our empirical analyses determine the extent to which intra-generational mobility and skill acquisition dynamics have contributed to these observed changes. Drawing on panel data from three countries: Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, we distinguish between workers in declining, stable and growing occupations with the aim of understanding how individuals in declining occupations fare in each of the labour markets. Does being in a declining occupation necessarily place workers in a vulnerable position, or are they able to access jobs in growing occupations? The study identifies the skills and individual characteristics that enable workers’ smooth transitions out of declining occupations towards new jobs within expanding employment sectors. A further line of inquiry looks at whether national training systems adapt to altered employment opportunities and foster the formation of new types of skills that successful switches to growing occupations require or that promote upward mobility paths.
Transition into adulthood of children immigrants in Switzerland: Analysis of familial and professional orientations of Turkish and Albanian youth.
PhD Co-Supervisors : Laura Bernardi, Guy Elcheroth
Conducted as part of the NCCR-LIVES IP2, this thesis focuses on the initial familial and professional orientations children of migrants have in comparison to Swiss youth from similar socio-economic backgrounds. We are particularly interested in the resource mobilization process, in relation to these two orientations, that Turkish and Albanian youth experience during the transition to adulthood. The primary research concern is to identify the mechanisms by which young adults’ social networks influence the direction of their paths in life. To do this, we first use data taken from the (ESPA) in order to identify the familial and professional trajectories of youth. Second, we take advantage of the pilot survey of the latest wave of PSM (III), which uses network sampling, and allows us to examine the links between networks and migrant youths’ familial and professional life trajectories.
Individual and collective experiences in shaping political attitudes of young adults in former Yugoslavia
PhD supervisor Dario Spini
The main goal of this research is to examine the impact of individual and collective experiences of war victimization and economic exclusion on the political attitudes and social identities of young adults in post-war, former Yugoslavia. We apply a mixed-method research design, combining a series of quantitative (most notably spatial multilevel analyses) and qualitative analyses (discourse analyses of elites’ speeches and media content). This approach allows us to disentangle the effects of personal victimization and collective exposure to war events and poverty, but also to examine how certain interpretations of these events become collectively shared, and how these shared interpretations of social experiences then shape individual opinions. In this way, by combining several levels of analyses – individual experiences, collective events and their interpretations within influential public discourse – we aim to get a more complete understanding of dramatic changes in the attitudes and identities of people in post-war countries of former Yugoslavia.
Personal networks, family trajectories and values in Switzerland (preliminary title)
PhD Supervisors: Jacques-Antoine Gauthier, Eric Widmer
Close relatives and friends serve as major relational resources for individuals. My thesis explores the organisation of these personal networks. The survey question “Who are currently the significant people in your life? ” allows us to examine an individual’s set of relationships in a given time period. Following a life course perspective, I link network dynamics with individual family trajectories in order to see whether different family patterns result in distinct network formations. For example, are life trajectories characterised by discontinuities, such as divorce, more likely to lead to individuals having more disconnected personal networks? I develop this further by connecting personal network structures and family trajectories to individual values.
This research draws on data from the FNS study « Family TiMes » (fond no 100017_130343 / 1). Eight hundreds individuals, representative of the three major linguistic regions and belonging to two distinct birth cohorts, 1950-55 and 1970-75, were interviewed in 2011.
Workers' occupational trajectories following plant closure
PhD Supervisor: Daniel Oesch
This study examines the impact job displacement has on the occupational trajectory of affected employees’, approximately eighteen months after job loss. It analyses the reintegration process of workers displaced by recent plant closures in Switzerland’s manufacturing sector. The main research questions are: Do workers suffer a loss in earnings? In what job (occupation and sector) are they re-employed? What resources, constraints and strategies determine workers’ positions after reintegration, in terms of subsequent wages, occupation and satisfaction with both work and income? Our study is based on micro-surveys of approximately one thousand employees from five large industrial firms in Switzerland that shut down between 2009 and 2010. The results will be compared to a reference group created on the basis of the Swiss Labour Force Survey (SAKE) and administrative data.
Trajectories of precariousness
PhD Supervisor: Dario Spini
My thesis is situated within the project “Vulnerability processes across the life course: Cumulative disadvantages, critical events, and socio-psychosocial resources” of NCCR LIVES. The subject of my research is trajectories of precarity, with a definition of precarity as suggested by social quality theory. This approach considers several life-domains, instead of referring to financial aspects only to conceptualize precariousness. The individual as agent of his/her life is central to this approach: Social quality is the individuals’ capacity to act and interact in society. The aim of this thesis is to explore the personal trajectories of individuals in various life situations which could be considered « precarious » by means of biographical methods, namely life calendars. Special attention will be paid to agency and perceived self-efficacy, as well as to the type of interactions with the institutional framework that are maintained by the individuals.
Ecuadorian immigration in Switzerland: Transnational social networks, social capital and their influence on structural and socio-cultural integration
Raúl Burgos Paredes
PhD Supervisor: Laura Bernardi
My dissertation endeavors to understand the structural and socio-cultural integration of Ecuadorian immigrants in Switzerland and what the impact of social capital and transnational activities is on such integration. Empirical results in the literature on the relationship that transnational activities have with integration are divergent, although some forms of social capital have been found to aid the integration of non-western immigrants in Europe. In trying to operationalize the concept of social capital in the case of international migration, I will apply social capital instruments through an in-depth qualitative study, which sheds light on how resources are activated and used by Ecuadorian immigrants. Data on documented and undocumented immigrants will be collected, enabling me to do a systematic comparison of the strength and access to social capital among these two different groups, the degree of involvement in transnational activities, and the different strategies they take in order to be integrated in Switzerland. Furthermore, attention will be paid to subjective perceptions of immigrants for the meaning of integration.
Educational Trajectories: Social Origin and Psychological Resources
PhD Co-Supervisors: Florence Passy and Dominique Joye
This project focuses on the links between social origin, psychological resources and educational trajectories in Switzerland. The educational trajectories at the upper secondary level (apprenticeship, Matura, etc.), examined using sequence analysis, are at the center of the investigation. The following questions,are addressed: a) How do social origin and psychological resources influence these trajectories? b) How do psychological resources evolve under the influence of the social origin and the educational trajectories? c) What is the impact of the upper secondary educational trajectory on the following educational path and professional integration? And how is this impact modified through social origin and psychological resources? d) How do the detected links vary in relation to regional differences in school systems and local labour markets? The main goal is to analyse how psychological resources can lessen any negative effect that social origin has on educational trajectories and to understand how regional characteristics also help to reduce it. Databases used: TREE and ch-x 2010/11
Elites and Occupational Careers in the Swiss Banking Industry (1980-2010)
PhD Supervisor: Felix Bühlmann
This thesis endeavours to understand the evolution of the Swiss Banking Industry between 1980 and 2010 from a life course perspective. It concentrates on two groups of actors: Elites and Young professionals. The study will address the two following research questions: 1) We want to explore how the historical development of the Swiss banking field has affected the composition of its elites. What type of resources do the banking elites possess? How have they been acquired and how have they evolved across the two selected periods? 2) We seek to examine what are the careers patterns and the representations of a cohort of young banking professionals. What are their educational and occupational trajectories? How do they differ in terms of resources? To what extend do the careers of elites and young professionals share common characteristics? In order to tackle these questions we apply a mixed method design that combines sequential analysis, multiple correspondence analysis and biographical interviews. We use an existing database on Swiss elites that we will extend by the collection of additional data on banking elites and we will conduct a survey with young professionals working for less than 10 years in the bank field.
Precarious occupational integration and social disaffiliation process: The cases of Switzerland and Portugal
PhD Supervisors: Dominique Joye and Karin Wall
Labor relations have undergone significant changes over the last decades. Job precariousness and work precariousness weaken “assured” and “stable” occupational integrations. These changes challenge “rigid”, continuous and foreseeable conception of occupational career (the choice of a profession, training, labor market integration, promotion and retirement), and question both material and symbolic recognition that are linked to professional activities. Facing this “rise of uncertainties”, we analyse the impact of precarious occupational integration on social ties, and how particular groups of people are unequally exposed to the “disaffiliation” risk. In order to answer these questions, we draws on data from the FNS study « Family TiMes » and data from a same design research conducted in Portugal. Moreover, analysing occupational integration and social ties of two cohorts (1950-1955, 1970-1975) in two different countries allow us to develop a framework taking into account the specific context studied.
The role of social contacts in finding a way out of unemployment
Anna von Ow
PhD Supervisors : Daniel Oesch
This PhD thesis is part of a research project, which explores the role of networks as a job search strategy for the unemployed. Thirty to seventy percent of jobs are found by means of social contacts, which clearly highlights their importance as a job search strategy. Furthermore, potential employers might interpret unemployment duration as a negative signal for productivity and effort in looking for a job. Therefore, it is crucial, especially for the unemployed, to be as well informed as possible about different search strategies and their effectiveness. Our study is based on a large-scale survey carried out among 4'500 unemployed job seekers in the canton of Vaud. The survey data have been collected using two questionnaires – one at the beginning and one at the end of unemployment. These data are also combined with administrative data stemming from the unemployment insurance register.Using this comprehensive data set, we investigate the interplay between job seekers' and social contacts' characteristics and its effect on the likelihood of finding a job, on how long this takes and on the type of job. We also explore whether job seekers succeed in mobilizing their social contacts in order to get help finding a job. This allows us to contribute new empirical findings to the literature on the procedural character of job search by means of social contacts, which so far has mainly been investigated theoretically.
Normative motherhood Its implications in the life course of women without children
PhD Supervisors: Laura Bernardi and Marianne Modak
I am interested in women without children and the implication of their condition for their life course. For approaching this subject I decided to use three sociological perspectives that are, complementary and essential for the comprehension of this question: gender perspective, life course paradigm and social networks. Many Western feminists have described the existence of a normative motherhood applicable to women. Women who are childless are perceived as “against the norm” and not meeting the social expectation. To answer this question, I use in my research, three perspectives that are complementary and allow analysing this phenomenon at three levels: individual, couple and social networks. Life course perspective offers the advantage to conceptualize “childless” not as one-point in time choice but as a process. Studying how normative motherhood influences women means also to investigate the woman’s partner role. The gender perspective adds to it that the roles and the interactions within the couple are gendered. Finally, the social network perspective will allow me to tackle the peer groups’ influence on childbearing. My data are semi-structured interviews with couples, and each partner separately. My sample is composed of heterosexual couples, living in Switzerland, where the woman is childless.
Structural Determinants of the Transition to Retirement in Switzerland: a Life Course Study
Ignacio Madero Cabib
Ph.D Supervisors: Jacques-Antoine Gauthier and Jean-Marie Le Goff
A substantial body of life course research has considered occupational trajectories in Switzerland, focusing either on early or middle adulthood careers. However, the issue of the transition to retirement is receiving increasing attention for several reasons: the emergence of declining birth rates associated with an aging population, a high proportion of active old workers, and continuous changes in the timing and variability of retirements in Switzerland. Moving forward on this topic, the present sociological thesis aims to offer new insights on the dynamics of the transition to retirement in Switzerland (centered on ages between 50 and 70 years), through a life course schema. I concentrate on three life course notions in order to study the transition to retirement: the homogenization, the heterogeneity, and the social vulnerability confronted during such life transition. I use data mainly from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The data will be investigated through the two most important tools of quantitative analysis within life course approach, namely optimal matching analysis and event history analysis.