3R principle is a concept introduced by 2 researchers, Russel and Burch, and published in 1959 in a book entilted "The principles of humane experimental technique"
Terms corresponding to 3R are « Reduce, Refine, Replace»
According to this principle, each researcher must:
- use all procedures which improve housing and daily life of experimental animals, apply up-do-date methodologies and administrate analgesia
- justify necessity of working with an animal model, explaining the expected benefits and clearly notifying constraints for experimental animals
- justify the choice of a particular animal model and demonstrate there is no possible alternative.
Academic institutions undertake to promote 3R principle application and to improve culture of care in animal experimentation.
Use the minimal statistically valid number of animal in each scientific protocol
- by working with statisticians to define the best methodology and design to use
- by promoting translationnal studies and bioimaging technology
Always improve animal welfare and minime constraints suffered by experimental animals
- by promoting the use of less-invasive or non-invasive procedures
- by administrating appropriate analgesia and improving surgical procedures
- by carefully following animal welfare and defining clear human endpoints
Use alternative model
- use cell or organ cultures
- use invertebrates instead of vertebrates
- use computational modelization