Glucose Tolerance Test

The glucose tolerance test (intraperitoneal or oral) is commonly used in the diagnosis of diabetes in both humans and rodents. The ability to quickly normalize the hyperglycemic episode following administration of a glucose bolus provides integrated information about glucose-induced insulin secretion by the pancreatic B cells and insulin sensitivity in the liver and peripheral organs. In addition, an oral (versus intraperitoneal) administration of glucose stimulates intestinal secretion of powerful insulinotropic hormones, the incretins, GLP-1 and GIP.

Diabetes is associated with alterations in several physiological functions. Thus, the glucose tolerance test is generally coupled with other tests in order to dissect out the contribution of each individual alteration.

For example, a primary defect at the level of incretin secretion or action is diagnosed with an impaired oral glucose tolerance in face of a normal intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. An impaired intraperitoneal glucose tolerance will suggest impairments in either insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity (or both together). It is, therefore, often coupled with an insulin tolerance test. Whenever a defect in insulin secretion is suspected, B cell function can be further assessed in vivo by a glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) test, hyperglycemic clamp, or ex vivo in isolated islets during static infusions or perifusions experiments .

A minimum of 10 mice per group should be sent to our facility, one week prior to the experiment.

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Burcelin R, Crivelli V, Dacosta A, Roy-Tirelli A, Thorens B. Heterogeneous metabolic adaptation of C57BL/6J mice to high-fat diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;282(4):E834-42.

Stumpel F, Burcelin R, Jungermann K, Thorens B. Normal kinetics of intestinal glucose absorption in the absence of GLUT2: evidence for a transport pathway requiring glucose phosphorylation and transfer into the endoplasmic reticulum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25;98(20):11330-5.