Resilience Under Occupation. The Case of Alternative Popular Education (APE) in Palestine
Sous la Direction de la Professeure Irene Maffi, Univeristé de Lausanne.
Targeting the Palestinian educational system and its institutions has been a frequently used policy by the Israeli occupying authorities since the first day of occupation. This policy reached its height during the first Intifada (1987 – 1993) when all universities, colleges, institutes, schools and even kindergartens received military orders to close their gates, both to suppress the uprising and as a measure of collective punishment. Realizing they had launched a process that promised to be lengthy, the Palestinians established an alternative educational system, with teaching and learning taking place in sites such as mosques, churches, private homes, and other places. This process, designated by the people as “Alternative Popular Education” (APE), was then declared illegal by the Israeli authorities, a crime for which participants could be imprisoned for up to ten years. The formation and protracted duration of APE has not so far received adequate attention on the part of researchers and scholars; most mention it in few sentences in relation to Israeli practices against education in general. The present study is intended to bridge this gap by shedding light on a unique and exemplary phenomenon, delving into its details, seeking out its roots, beck ming acquainted with its participants, and judging its effects in the educational but also the political field, as well as its place in the broader picture of the protracted struggle against occupation .As part of the Pluralistic Memories Project, data will first of all be collected depending on the memories of witnesses and participants who will be interviewed, in addition to identifying written sources such as military orders and statements of the United National Leadership of the Intifada (UNLI) and relevant academic and journalistic literature. Research will primarily be gathered in two major, representative Palestinian sites that participated in the process, Ramallah and Nablus, along with their surroundings. Two major aspects will be considered: 1) spatial categories (refugee camp, village, and city), and 2) educational level (elementary and secondary schools, and universities).
Keywords: Alternative Popular Education (APE); Intifada; Resilience; Resistance; Collective Punishment.