Microsurgery (pathophysiological models)
These techniques can be performed in rat and mice.
Goldblatt I (1K1C) and Goldblatt II (2K1C) - models of hypertension
A left lateral abdominal incision is used to expose the kidney. A clip is placed around the left renal artery (Goldblatt I and II) in order to reduce the renal blood flow. For the Goldblatt I method, another incision is made in the right lateral abdominal wall and a right-nephrectomy is also performed. Can be performed in rat and mice.
Myocardial Infarction (MI) - Ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery
A left lateral thoracotomy is performed on anesthetized and ventilated animal to expose the heart. A ligature near the insertion of the left auricular appendage is placed and tied around the left descending coronary artery. Occlusion of the artery is verified by the rapid blanching of the left ventricle. The ends of the occluding ligature are trimmed and the chest and skin incision are closed.
Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Model
For ischemia/reperfusion studies, the procedure is identical to the MI procedure, however the ligature is left in place for a predetermined amount of time (normally 30 or 60 minutes), and then removed prior to chest closure.
Trans-aortic constriction (TAC) model for inducing pressure overload
A small horizontal incision is made at the level of the cranial sternum allowing visualization of the aortic arch. A suture is placed around the aorta between the origin of the right innominate and left common carotid artery. Transaortic constriction (TAC) is created using a suture tied twice around the aorta and a predetermined-gauge needle size. The needle is then gently retracted and the incision closed.
Carotid baloon injury model
After dissecting the left carotid bifurcation, we introduce the balloon catheter (fogarty 2F) through an arteriotomy on the proximal external carotid artery. The catheter is advanced to the common carotid artery, inflated, and withdrawn three times with rotation.