This thesis proposes a set of adaptive broadcast solutions and an adaptive data replication solution to support the deployment of P2P applications. P2P applications are an emerging type of distributed applications that are running on top of P2P networks. Typical P2P applications are video streaming, file sharing, etc.
While interesting because they are fully distributed, P2P applications suffer from several deployment problems, due to the nature of the environment on which they perform. Indeed, defining an application on top of a P2P network often means defining an application where peers contribute resources in exchange for their ability to use the P2P application. For example, in P2P file sharing application, while the user is downloading some file, the P2P application is in parallel serving that file to other users. Such peers could have limited hardware resources, e.g., CPU, bandwidth and memory or the end-user could decide to limit the resources it dedicates to the P2P application a priori. In addition, a P2P network is typically emerged into an unreliable environment, where communication links and processes are subject to message losses and crashes, respectively.
To support P2P applications, this thesis proposes a set of services that address some underlying constraints related to the nature of P2P networks. The proposed services include a set of adaptive broadcast solutions and an adaptive data replication solution that can be used as the basis of several P2P applications. Our data replication solution permits to increase availability and to reduce the communication overhead. The broadcast solutions aim, at providing a communication substrate encapsulating one of the key communication paradigms used by P2P applications: broadcast. Our broadcast solutions typically aim at offering reliability and scalability to some upper layer, be it an end-to-end P2P application or another system-level layer, such as a data replication layer.
Our contributions are organized in a protocol stack made of three layers. In each layer, we propose a set of adaptive protocols that address specific constraints imposed by the environment. Each protocol is evaluated through a set of simulations. The adaptiveness aspect of our solutions relies on the fact that they take into account the constraints of the underlying system in a proactive manner.
To model these constraints, we define an environment approximation algorithm allowing us to obtain an approximated view about the system or part of it. This approximated view includes the topology and the components reliability expressed in probabilistic terms.
To adapt to the underlying system constraints, the proposed broadcast solutions route messages through tree overlays permitting to maximize the broadcast reliability. Here, the broadcast reliability is expressed as a function of the selected paths reliability and of the use of available resources. These resources are modeled in terms of quotas of messages translating the receiving and sending capacities at each node. To allow a deployment in a large-scale system, we take into account the available memory at processes by limiting the view they have to maintain about the system. Using this partial view, we propose three scalable broadcast algorithms, which are based on a propagation overlay that tends to the global tree overlay and adapts to some constraints of the underlying system.
At a higher level, this thesis also proposes a data replication solution that is adaptive both in terms of replica placement and in terms of request routing. At the routing level, this solution takes the unreliability of the environment into account, in order to maximize reliable delivery of requests. At the replica placement level, the dynamically changing origin and frequency of read/write requests are analyzed, in order to define a set of replica that minimizes communication cost.
Game theory describes and analyzes strategic interaction. It is usually distinguished between static games, which are strategic situations in which the players choose only once as well as simultaneously, and dynamic games, which are strategic situations involving sequential choices. In addition, dynamic games can be further classified according to perfect and imperfect information. Indeed, a dynamic game is said to exhibit perfect information, whenever at any point of the game every player has full informational access to all choices that have been conducted so far. However, in the case of imperfect information some players are not fully informed about some choices. Game-theoretic analysis proceeds in two steps. Firstly, games are modelled by so-called form structures which extract and formalize the significant parts of the underlying strategic interaction. The basic and most commonly used models of games are the normal form, which rather sparsely describes a game merely in terms of the players' strategy sets and utilities, and the extensive form, which models a game in a more detailed way as a tree. In fact, it is standard to formalize static games with the normal form and dynamic games with the extensive form. Secondly, solution concepts are developed to solve models of games in the sense of identifying the choices that should be taken by rational players. Indeed, the ultimate objective of the classical approach to game theory, which is of normative character, is the development of a solution concept that is capable of identifying a unique choice for every player in an arbitrary game. However, given the large variety of games, it is not at all certain whether it is possible to device a solution concept with such universal capability. Alternatively, interactive epistemology provides an epistemic approach to game theory of descriptive character. This rather recent discipline analyzes the relation between knowledge, belief and choice of game-playing agents in an epistemic framework. The description of the players' choices in a given game relative to various epistemic assumptions constitutes the fundamental problem addressed by an epistemic approach to game theory. In a general sense, the objective of interactive epistemology consists in characterizing existing game-theoretic solution concepts in terms of epistemic assumptions as well as in proposing novel solution concepts by studying the game-theoretic implications of refined or new epistemic hypotheses. Intuitively, an epistemic model of a game can be interpreted as representing the reasoning of the players. Indeed, before making a decision in a game, the players reason about the game and their respective opponents, given their knowledge and beliefs. Precisely these epistemic mental states on which players base their decisions are explicitly expressible in an epistemic framework. In this PhD thesis, we consider an epistemic approach to game theory from a foundational point of view. In Chapter 1, basic game-theoretic notions as well as Aumann's epistemic framework for games are expounded and illustrated. Also, Aumann's sufficient conditions for backward induction are presented and his conceptual views discussed. In Chapter 2, Aumann's interactive epistemology is conceptually analyzed. In Chapter 3, which is based on joint work with Conrad Heilmann, a three-stage account for dynamic games is introduced and a type-based epistemic model is extended with a notion of agent connectedness. Then, sufficient conditions for backward induction are derived. In Chapter 4, which is based on joint work with Jérémie Cabessa, a topological approach to interactive epistemology is initiated. In particular, the epistemic-topological operator limit knowledge is defined and some implications for games considered. In Chapter 5, which is based on joint work with Jérémie Cabessa and Andrés Perea, Aumann's impossibility theorem on agreeing to disagree is revisited and weakened in the sense that possible contexts are provided in which agents can indeed agree to disagree.
Thesis in joint-supervision with the University of Maastricht
Désormais, la lutte contre le blanchiment d'argent constitue une priorité pour les Etats et les gouvernements dans le but, d'une part, de préserver l'économie et l'intégrité des places financières et, d'autre part, de priver les organisations criminelles des ressources financières. Dans ce contexte, la préoccupation majeure des autorités algériennes en charge de la lutte contre ce phénomène est de mettre en place un dispositif capable de détecter les mécanismes de blanchiment, d'en évaluer la menace et sur la base de cette connaissance, de définir et de déployer les moyens de riposte les plus efficaces et efficients. Mais nous constatons que mener des enquêtes de blanchiment en conséquence à un crime sous-jacent a montré ses limites en matière d'établissement de preuves, d'élucidation d'affaires et de recouvrement des avoirs. Par ailleurs, nous pensons qu'il serait plus judicieux de mettre en place en amont un contrôle «systématique» des flux financiers et des opérations inhabituelles et/ou suspectes et de là, identifier d'éventuelles opérations de blanchiment, sans forcément connaître le crime initial, en veillant au maintien de l'équilibre entre le «tout sécuritaire» orienté vers la surveillance accrue des flux et la préservation de la vie privée et des libertés individuelles.
Notre thèse apporte un regard critique sur le dispositif actuel de lutte contre le blanchiment existant en Algérie que nous évaluons et sur lequel nous relevons plusieurs lacunes. Pour répondre aux problèmes identifiés nous proposons des solutions stratégiques, organisationnelles, méthodologiques et technologiques intégrées dans un cadre opérationnel cohérent au niveau national et international.
Evaluating Information Security Posture within an organization is becoming a very complex task. Currently, the evaluation and assessment of Information Security are commonly performed using frameworks, methodologies and standards which often consider the various aspects of security independently. Unfortunately this is ineffective because it does not take into consideration the necessity of having a global and systemic multidimensional approach to Information Security evaluation. At the same time the overall security level is globally considered to be only as strong as its weakest link.
This thesis proposes a model aiming to holistically assess all dimensions of security in order to minimize the likelihood that a given threat will exploit the weakest link. A formalized structure taking into account all security elements is presented; this is based on a methodological evaluation framework in which Information Security is evaluated from a global perspective.
Ubiquitous Computing is the emerging trend in computing systems. Based on this observation this thesis proposes an analysis of the hardware and environmental constraints that rule pervasive platforms. These constraints have a strong impact on the programming of such platforms. Therefore solutions are proposed to facilitate this programming both at the platform and node levels.
The first contribution presented in this document proposes a combination of agentoriented programming with the principles of bio-inspiration (Phylogenesys, Ontogenesys and Epigenesys) to program pervasive platforms such as the PERvasive computing framework for modeling comPLEX virtually Unbounded Systems platform.
The second contribution proposes a method to program efficiently parallelizable applications on each computing node of this platform.
Thesis in joint-supervision with the Université de Montpellier
Complex systems science is an interdisciplinary field grouping under the same umbrella dynamical phenomena from social, natural or mathematical sciences. The emergence of a higher order organization or behavior, transcending that expected of the linear addition of the parts, is a key factor shared by all these systems. Most complex systems can be modeled as networks that represent the interactions amongst the system's components. In addition to the actual nature of the part's interactions, the intrinsic topological structure of underlying network is believed to play a crucial role in the remarkable emergent behaviors exhibited by the systems. Moreover, the topology is also a key a factor to explain the extraordinary flexibility and resilience to perturbations when applied to transmission and diffusion phenomena. In this work, we study the effect of different network structures on the performance and on the fault tolerance of systems in two different contexts.
Thesis in joint-supervision with the University of Turin
In this thesis, we study the use of prediction markets for technology assessment. We particularly focus on their ability to assess complex issues, the design constraints required for such applications and their efficacy compared to traditional techniques. To achieve this, we followed a design science research paradigm, iteratively developing, instantiating, evaluating and refining the design of our artifacts. This allowed us to make multiple contributions, both practical and theoretical.
We first showed that prediction markets are adequate for properly assessing complex issues. We also developed a typology of design factors and design propositions for using these markets in a technology assessment context. Then, we showed that they are able to solve some issues related to the R&D portfolio management process and we proposed a roadmap for their implementation. Finally, by comparing the instantiation and the results of a multi-criteria decision method and a prediction market, we showed that the latter are more efficient, while offering similar results. We also proposed a framework for comparing forecasting methods, to identify the constraints based on contingency factors. In conclusion, our research opens a new field of application of prediction markets and should help hasten their adoption by enterprises.
The use of the Internet as a shopping and purchasing medium has seen exceptional growth. However, 99% of new online businesses fail. Most online buyers do not comeback for a repurchase, and 60% abandon their shopping cart before checkout. Indeed, after the first purchase, online consumer retention becomes critical to the success of the e-commerce vendor. Retaining existing customers can save costs, increase profits, and is a means of gaining competitive advantage.
Past research identified loyalty as the most important factor in achieving customer retention, and commitment as one of the most important factors in relationship marketing, providing a good description of what type of thinking leads to loyalty. Yet, we could not find an e-commerce study investing the impact of both online loyalty and online commitment on online repurchase. One of the advantages of online shopping is the ability of browsing for the best price with one click. Yet, we could not find an e- commerce empirical research investigating the impact of post-purchase price perception on online repurchase.The objective of this research is to develop a theoretical model aimed at understanding online repurchase, or purchase continuance from the same online store.
Our model was tested in a real e-commerce context with an overall sample of 1, 866 real online buyers from the same online store.The study focuses on repurchase. Therefore, randomly selected respondents had purchased from the online store at least once prior to the survey. Five months later, we tracked respondents to see if they actually came back for a repurchase.
Our findings show that online Intention to repurchase has a non-significant impact on online Repurchase. Online post-purchase Price perception and online Normative Commitment have a non-significant impact on online Intention to repurchase, whereas online Affective Commitment, online Attitudinal Loyalty, online Behavioral Loyalty, and online Calculative Commitment have a positive impact on online Intention to repurchase. Furthermore, online Attitudinal Loyalty partially mediates between online Affective Commitment and online Intention to repurchase, and online Behavioral Loyalty partially mediates between online Attitudinal Loyalty and online Intention to repurchase.
We conducted two follow up analyses: 1) On a sample of first time buyers, we find that online post-purchase Price perception has a positive impact on Intention. 2) We divided the main study's sample into Swiss-French and Swiss-German repeated buyers. Results show that Swiss-French show more emotions when shopping online than Swiss- Germans. Our findings contribute to academic research but also to practice.
Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics used to analyze situation where two or more agents are interacting. Originally it was developed as a model for conflicts and collaborations between rational and intelligent individuals. Now it finds applications in social sciences, eco- nomics, biology (particularly evolutionary biology and ecology), engineering, political science, international relations, computer science, and philosophy. Networks are an abstract representation of interactions, dependencies or relationships. Net- works are extensively used in all the fields mentioned above and in many more. Many useful informations about a system can be discovered by analyzing the current state of a network representation of such system. In this work we will apply some of the methods of game theory to populations of agents that are interconnected. A population is in fact represented by a network of players where one can only interact with another if there is a connection between them. In the first part of this work we will show that the structure of the underlying network has a strong influence on the strategies that the players will decide to adopt to maximize their utility. We will then introduce a supplementary degree of freedom by allowing the structure of the population to be modified along the simulations. This modification allows the players to modify the structure of their environment to optimize the utility that they can obtain.
Le μ-calcul est une extension de la logique modale par des opérateurs de point fixe. Dans ce travail nous étudions la complexité de certains fragments de cette logique selon deux points de vue, différents mais étroitement liés: l'un syntaxique (ou combinatoire) et l'autre topologique. Du point de vue syn¬taxique, les propriétés définissables dans ce formalisme sont classifiées selon la complexité combinatoire des formules de cette logique, c'est-à-dire selon le nombre d'alternances des opérateurs de point fixe. Comparer deux ensembles de modèles revient ainsi à comparer la complexité syntaxique des formules as¬sociées. Du point de vue topologique, les propriétés définissables dans cette logique sont comparées à l'aide de réductions continues ou selon leurs positions dans la hiérarchie de Borel ou dans celle projective.
Thesis in joint-supervision with the Université Bordeaux-I, France