Creating news - news values in journalism practice

Le 9 octobre 2015, 10h15-12h00, Anthropole, salle 5060

Entrée libre, conférence de Mme Gitte Gravengaard, University of Copenhagen

dans le cadre du séminaire de Marcel Burger et Laura Delaloye "Vers une ethnolinguistique des médias".

Creating news – news values in journalism practice
Journalists know what ‘a good news story’ is. However this tacit expert knowledge is often difficult to explicate for these professional practitioners. In Denmark journalists will often refer to the news criteria or their gut feeling when asked what ‘a good news story’ really is.

Based on ethnographic studies and interviews I argue that we can describe eight factors, which affect journalists’ assessment of ideas for news stories offering a more adequate description of what ‘a good news story’ is in practice.

Furthermore this talk will address how to investigate journalism practice and journalists’ tacit expert knowledge. What theoretical framework might work and what methods might be suited for the task? We will look at a recent Danish research project focusing on journalist interns as an example of how this can be done.

Situated identities and public engagement in mediated political debates

Le 7 octobre 2015, 13h15-15h00, Internef, salle 233

Entrée libre, conférence de Mme Joanna THORNBORROW, Université de Brest, France

dans le cadre du séminaire de Marcel Burger "Construction des identités en communication publique".

Situated identities and public engagement in mediated political debates
The media has for some time now offered an important site of engagement for political debate between citizens and their elected representatives. In this talk I investigate how members of the public routinely construct relevant, situated identities within the context of this mediated public sphere, and through which they legitimise ordinary experience in the expression of political opinions. On radio and on television, in phone-in programmes and panel discussions, interaction between politicians and voters can take place live, on air, where voters can question politicians directly and hold them accountable for their actions. However, as political engagement shifts into the wider web-based and social media, this raises questions of access and accountability: what effect does this shift have on forms of opinion-giving and politically mediated debate?

Les stratégies d’évitement dans l’interaction politique

Le 21 mai 2015, 13h15-15h00, Anthropole, salle 4173

Entrée libre, conférence de Mme Safinaz Büyükgüzel, Hacettepe University (Turquie)

dans le cadre du séminaire de Marcel Burger "Construction des identités en communication publique".

Les stratégies d’évitement dans l’interaction politique
Ce travail ancré dans le champ de la linguistique interactionnelle, s’intéresse à la notion d’évitement au sein de l’organisation séquentielle de l’interaction politique, plus précisément au sein de l’interview politique télévisée. L’objectif est d’observer les pratiques communicatives des politiciens en situation d’interview exclusive et de montrer quelles sont les ressources interactionnelles qui sont mobilisées lors d’une interview télédiffusée. Avec la professionnalisation des politiques, l’évitement apparaît à la fois comme une ressource stratégique et pratique, qui permet de marquer et cacher une prise de position. En tant qu’interaction sociale, l’interview politique, conduite entre un journaliste et un politicien, représente une situation institutionnelle où tous les participants contribuent collectivement à l’interaction. Possédant des rôles asymétriques, les participants utilisent des stratégies diverses pour éviter une place, cacher ou avancer une position. L’évitement, au sein d’une interaction politique ayant des patterns divers, apparaît sous des formes différentes: reformulation, changement de place, de position et de rôle, généralisation, désaccord, pause, chevauchements, réparations, répétition, aplatissement de la prosodie, demande de clarification ou d’explication…

Safinaz Büyükgüzel is a Research Assistant at Hacettepe University in FLT Department and a (cotutelle) PhD student at Hacettepe University and University of Lausanne. Her research focuses on the analysis of interaction in institutional context particularly on the micro-organisation of media talk and political interaction. She currently works on her PhD dissertation on avoidance strategies in political interviews co-supervised by Ece KORKUT and Marcel BURGER.

Scripting the Liminal Zone. Membership Categorization and News-Culture-in-Action

Le mercredi 13 mai 2015, 13h15-15h00, Anthropole, salle 5081

Entrée libre, conférence du Prof. Richard Fitzgerald, University of Macau, China

dans le cadre du séminaire de Marcel Burger "Construction des identités en communication publique".

Scripting the Liminal Zone. Membership Categorization and News-Culture-in-Action
The work of journalism often involves transforming personal identities into social categories which in turn have normative actions attributed and which inferentially account for some behavior. In this sense journalism involves creating stories where familiar characters do familiar actions for familiar reasons, but where these often involve (routine) category disjunctures. This may be described as a ‘news culture in action’ where news has its own set of reasoning practices. Recently this routine feature of news coverage of unfolding stories has come under pressure with the advent of newer forms of communication where immediate information comes from multiple of sources. This is especially the case during those events described as disaster marathons or where circumstances are not clear. Because of this the ‘liminal zone’ between an event occurring and knowing the facts about that event have become a highly contested area of journalism where the rush to storify or provide a context for the events can be at the expense of establishing solid knowledge of the events. This has exposed journalism’s increasing reliance on using forms of ‘scripts’ drawing on normative assumptions in relation to social categories, their assumed actions and their assumed reasoning, despite the actual events, characters and actions being unclear. This is particularly apparent in some high profile events such as the 9/11 attacks in the US, Anders Breivik’s killings in Norway and the recent Germanwings tragedy that highlights the issue in 24/7 news where the ‘scripts’ have proved fallacious and even dangerous to dealing with the still ongoing events. Following an initial introduction to Membership Categorization Analysis the discussion will examine a number of instances where the pressure to provide a context for events relies upon mundane categorial reasoning which both underpins the work of reporting but also reflexively reveals what may be termed a news-culture-in-action.

Richard Fitzgerald is Associate Professor of Communication at the University of Macau, and currently Visiting Professor at the University of Western Brittany, Brest. He completed his BA and PhD at Bangor University UK and has held posts at Brunel and Cardiff Universities in the UK and the University of Queensland, Australia. He has published extensively in the area of Membership Categorisation Analysis often with a focus on broadcast media. His latest book, Advances in Membership Categorisation Analysis, co edited with William Housley, was published in March 2015 with Sage.