Oral plosives

| Bilabial plosives | Dental plosives | Retroflex plosives | Palatal plosives | Velar plosives | Uvular plosives | Glottal plosive
 

You can hear each sound by clicking on his IPA transcription.

Bilabial plosives

Voiceless bilabial stop. The lips are pressed tightly together (see figure 3.1 below). There exists a corresponding lax articulation that is one of the spirants.

Figure 3.1 : bilabial plosive

Figure 3.1 : bilabial stop

Voiced bilabial stop. Same as above, but with vibration of the vocal cords. The corresponding bilabial nasal is usually voiced as well. There is also a corresponding lax articulation that is one of the spirants.

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Dental plosives

Voiceless dental or alveolar stop.. The tongue makes contact with the front teeth or with the alveolar ridge directly above them (see figure 3.2 below). There exists a corresponding lax articulation that is one of the spirants.

Figure 3.2 : dental or alveolar stop
Figure 3.2 : dental or alveolar stop

 

Voiced bilabial stop. Same as above, but with vibration of the vocal cords. The corresponding bilabial nasal is usually voiced as well. There is also a corresponding lax articulation that is one of the spirants.

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Retroflex plosives

Voiceless retroflex stop. The tongue curves up and back so that its tip or its underside makes contact with the roof of the mouth (see figure 3.3 below). (Warning! Do not confuse this symbol with that of the ordinary voiceless dental or alveolar stop!)

Figure 3.3 : retroflex stop
Figure 3.3 : retroflex stop

Voiced retroflex stop. Same as above, but with vibration of the vocal cords. The corresponding retroflex nasal is usually voiced as well.

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Palatal plosives

Voiceless palatal stop. The tongue tip is directed down towards the lower teeth, while the tongue body makes contact with the hard palate (see figure 3.4 below). (It is important to distinguish between the true palatal articulation and that of a dental + [j].)

Figure 3.4 : palatal stop
Figure 3.4 : palatal stop

 

Voiced palatal stop. Same as above, but with vibration of the vocal cords. The corresponding palatal nasal palatale is usually voiced as well.

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Velar plosives

Voiceless velar stop. With the tongue tip resting against the lower teeth, the back of the tongue makes contact with the soft palate (see figure 3.5 below).

Figure 3.5 : velar stop

 

Voiced velar stop. Same as above, but with vibration of the vocal cords. The corresponding velar nasal is usually voiced as well.

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Uvular plosives

Voiceless uvular stop. The tongue tip remains placed against the lower teeth, and the tongue body is raised far enough back to make contact with the soft palate near the uvula (see figure 3.6 below).

Figure 3.6 : uvular stop
Figure 3.6 : uvular stop

 

Voiced uvular stop. Same as above, but with vibration of the vocal cords. The corresponding uvular nasal is usuall voiced as well.

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Glottal plosive

Glottal stop. The glottal stop is produced either by the suddent opening of the glottis under pressure from the air below, or by the abrupt closure of the glottis to block the airstream. The glottal stop is always voiceless, as the complete closure of the vocal cords precludes their vibration.)

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