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Organisations et administrations publiques
Politiques publiques comparées
Stratégies de recherche et méthodes comparatives
Contourner l'État-nation ? Comment les parlements cantonaux suisses réagissent à leurs obligations internationales
2019 - 2023 (48 mois)
Requérant·e: Evelyne Schmid (FDCA), Martino Maggetti
Autres collaborateurs-trices: Jonathan Miaz, Constance Kaempfer, Matthieu Niederhauser
La perception du droit international par le public est parfois controversée. Dans notre projet, nous examinons comment les parlements cantonaux réagissent concrètement aux obligations internationales. Quand et comment est-ce que les parlements cantonaux peuvent-ils exercer une influence et comment peuvent-ils utiliser la marge de manoeuvre que leur laisse le droit international lorsqu'ils le mettent en oeuvre ? Le droit international est plus complexe aujourd'hui qu'il ne l'était il y a cent ans. Il s'adresse parfois aux législateurs nationaux et exige d'eux qu'ils prennent des mesures législatives. Lorsque la Suisse décide de contracter une obligation internationale, cela signifie souvent que les parlements cantonaux vont être obligés d'adopter ou de modifier de nouvelles lois, par exemple pour mettre en oeuvre des obligations découlant d'accords bilatéraux ou dans le domaine de la protection des droits humains. Tout le monde n'est pas toujours content. Certains déplorent une perte quasi totale de la marge de manoeuvre des parlements - d'autres, en revanche, se plaignent d'une prétendue absence d'influence du droit international sur les processus législatifs cantonaux. Il peut aussi arriver qu'une obligation contraignante de légiférer existe, mais qu'un parlement cantonal reste inactif ou choisisse une mise en oeuvre partielle ou lacunaire. En tant que petit État, la Suisse a tout intérêt à ce que l'ordre juridique international soit fondé sur des règles. Elle veut asseoir sa réputation internationale de partenaire fiable. Mais elle veut aussi maintenir son ordre fédéraliste et laisser une certaine liberté d'action aux acteurs infranationaux. L'objectif du projet est d'examiner les effets des obligations législatives internationales sur le travail concret des parlements cantonaux.
Integration of the Swiss Energy System into the European Energy Policy
2018 - 2019 (12 mois)
Requérant·e: Matthias Finger, Manuel Fischer, Martino Maggetti and Géraldine Pflieger
This project will identify the main characteristics of the current and expected future energy policies of Switzerland and Europe. For this purpose it will study Switzerland's and Europe's energy policies from the point of view of governance. It will analyse not only the formalised rules, but also the institutions, the formal and informal political processes and the interactions between governmental and non-governmental players.
When and why do governments integrate policy sectors? A comparative analysis of eleven countries and four policy areas
2016 - 2019 (36 mois)
Requérant·e: Martino Maggetti
Autres collaborateurs-trices: Philipp Trein, Iris Meyer
Depuis quelques années, les gouvernements des pays développés ont commencé à re-intégrer certains secteurs de politiques publiques, surtout dans des domaines considérés comme prioritaires. Par exemple, la politique de la santé fait l'objet de tentatives de coordination accrue avec la politique en matière de migration. Ce projet vise à étudier ces nouvelles dynamiques.
NCCR - The democratic accountability tr.
2013 - 2017 (48 mois)
Requérant·e: Fabrizio Gilardi, Martino Maggetti, Ioannis Papadopoulos
Projet réalisé dans le cadre du NCCR Démocratie
The globalization process goes with more demand for regulation and coordination at the international and transnational levels. In the last two decades, major changes have taken place in the modes of such regulation. There has been a proliferation of transnational networks of regulatory agencies in different policy domains. Furthermore, private forms of governance have developed. Examples of such transnational, private regulatory bodies are companies (e.g., rating agencies), private organizations (e.g., the International Accounting Standards Board), private standard-setting bodies (e.g., the International Organization for Standardization), non-profit organizations (e.g., the Forest Stewardship Council), and multi-stakeholder platforms (e.g., the United Nations Global Compact).
Some of these private actors are considered to be extremely powerful and relevant for global governance. Although the rules they issue are deliberately voluntary, they may be de facto binding and even become incorporated into "hard law". Often they provide normative guidance for the elaboration and preparation of domestic legislation and are eventually included in national laws.
A significant and increasing share of policy making is thus carried out by private bodies that are neither elected - which would make them directly accountable to citizens - nor embedded in democratic institutions. However, these non-public actors make rules that involve collectively binding decisions. How do such forms of private governance affect democratic policy-making? To whom are these private bodies accountable? And how can transnational, private governance be democratically controlled? These are the central questions this research project will explore.
Internationalisation, Mediatization, and the Accountability of Independent Regulatory Agencies, NCCR Democracy
2009 - 2013
Requérant·e: Fabrizio Gilardi, Yannis Papadopoulos
Autres collaborateurs-trices: Martino Maggetti
Following the privatization of former state-owned enterprises and the liberalization of markets in recent decades, regulation has become an important public policy, whose responsibility has in many cases been delegated to independent agencies. During the past 15 years, these regulatory agencies have become powerful actors in the governance of different policy domains across Europe and beyond. A significant and increasing share of policy making is thus carried out by institutions that are not elected, are independent from elected politicians and insulated from democratic institutions. These developments pose serious challenges for democratic accountability.
National regulatory agencies are increasingly embedded in international, interdependent networks of regulators, whose establishment is promoted by supranational bodies such as the EU Commission. This project examines whether networks significantly contribute to the promotion of "best practices" among these agencies through "peer pressure" and mutual accountability. To analyze this is crucial for assessing and improving the performance of regulators.
Furthermore, in order to assess the public accountability of regulatory agencies, the project also studies their communication practices targeted at the media, governments, and other actors that are likely to monitor and evaluate their performance. With its research results, the project aims to increase public awareness about the regulatory activity of agencies and to contribute to the improvement of their performance and their democratic accountability.
Trust in Governance and Regulation in Europe (TiGRE)
2020 - 2023
Requérant·e: Martino Maggetti, Ioannis Papadopoulos
The demands of citizens and public authorities for data and privacy protection, financial stability, product safety and traceability are constantly increasing. In such a context, all actors need to trust governance and regulatory regimes that their interests are safeguarded. However, recent scandals, such as major data leakages and privacy-threatening behaviour by Facebook, Google or Zoom for instance, have created threats for citizens' trust in regulatory regimes.
In TiGRE, we believe that an optimal level of trust is a precondition and a consequence of well-functioning of regulatory regimes, which operate across different levels of governance for carrying out regulatory policies. In this context, we will investigate under which conditions regulatory regimes are trusted by analysing the interactions between the involved actors. We aim to draw a more encompassing picture of trust dynamics and understand their drivers as well as their political and socio-economic effects.
TiGRE is a multidisciplinary research project which benefits from the expertise of nine top-level universities and research centres and one SME, from nine different countries, bringing together a broad range of theoretical and methodological skills. TiGRE receives funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. The project started on 1 January 2020 and will run until 30 June 2023.
Rethinking Stakeholder Participation in International Governance
2015 - 2017
Organisme subventionnaire: SNIS (Suisse)
Requérant·e: Tim Büthe, Martino Maggetti, Joost Pauwelyn
To address today's highly complex and rapidly evolving cross-border problems, countries and other stakeholders are increasingly resorting to case-by-case networks, expert- driven bodies or club-like arrangements. Given the rigidity of formal treaties and formal international organisations (IOs) such new forms of governance can more efficiently respond to volatility and more easily adapt and innovate. However, one side effect of such rapid-response arrangements is that they may not sufficiently take account of external stakeholders who are outside of the arrangement but nonetheless impacted by it.
This project will, in a hands-on, practical way, identify and carefully map the different responses to legitimacy challenges raised by external stakeholders in a series of selected formal and informal governance arrangements, focusing on health and finance. The project seeks to establish and explain the variation in institutional reforms, including the lack of reforms in some cases. It aims to understand the effectiveness of institutional reforms in terms of actually increasing external stakeholder input and the perceived legitimacy of the global body's governance among those external stakeholders. Finally, the research will assess the effect of introducing these participation mechanisms on the process and the efficiency of rule-making and, on that basis, propose a set of best practices and practical guidelines.
Utrecht University School of Law
External partner of the project: Verticalization of Enforcement (Utrecht Centre for Regulation and Enforcement in Europe RENFORCE, Utrecht University) (2016-2017)
Contact : Mira Scholten, Michiel Luchtman
Utrecht University School of Governance
Affiliated researcher to the project: Calibrating Public Accountability (NWO-Vidi-grant 2014) (2015-2020).
Contact : Thomas Schillemans